United States of America...
with a free hand, but give only your own."
Tolkien The Children of
- BLOG -
(Unbounded opinion from the Grand Exalted Ampersand of the Pan
Galactic Parenthetical Society)
nothing to sell you but hope, and that I give you for free.
January 29, 2013 They say we need to increase
the "high tech" visa limit (a.k.a. the H1-B visa) and this will
be good for the economy. Republicans join in the chorus and sing
along. Don't we need more strong-backed plumbers and hard
working sales clerks? If it's good to import people
willing to work for below-market wages just because they have a
degree in engineering, why isn't it good to let people with any
other skill or trade in?
Young Americans see their parents struggling to keep employed
and to earn enough to make the years of their education in
science and engineering pay, and they say to themselves, no way
am I going to sacrifice so much and work so hard in school just
so in school when I can make just as much being an auto mechanic
or a manager at McDonald's. There has to be an solid
economic pay off to motivate people to do hard things.
When it comes to this issue, Republicans get all blue-blooded
and country clubbed.
Discouraging young Americans from even being interested in math
and science is bad for our economy and dangerous for our
There Is No Shortage of
Thursday, 25 Apr 2013
"Immigration policies that facilitate large flows of
guestworkers will supply labor at wages that are too low to
induce significant increases in supply from the domestic
January 28, 2013 The
only way that a minimum wage can be successfully imposed is to
simultaneously impose a robust welfare state to take care of all
of the people that the minimum wage makes unemployable.
November 13, 2012 The "judgemental religious right" -
which I am a part of - created the largest most open, most
tolerant society ever in recorded history. It is the
intolerant left that soon after seizing power abandons any shred
of religious or ideological tolerance.
The election results had very little to do with political
ideology, but rather "the enemy of my enemy is my friend".
When the various coalitions that seized control discover they
really can't trust each other-- because they only had one thing
in common-- there will be civil war. If you haven't
noticed, gun and ammunition sales are at an all-time high.
June 11, 2012 There is a point of diminishing
return for additional pub sect workers
Public sector workers can facilitate and enhance the
productivity of the private sector, mostly by defending against
foreign invaders and settling disputes between citizens.
But not that many are needed for these functions, and there
their number quickly reaches a point of diminishing returns for
additional workers. Very quickly.
March 16, 2011 "Great
minds discuss ideas. Average minds discuss events.
Small minds discuss people." - Elenor Roosevelt(?)
Is political self-interest more trustworthy than economic
"Mass transit" is just another wealth-transfer scheme
politicians use to buy votes. What mass transit system ever charged its riders
what it actually costs to run the darn thing?
January 9, 2011
Evolution can not explain why, after over 100 years of the
automobile, there hasn't developed a race of super squirrels
that have enough sense to get out of the way!
November 19, 2010 Every
time I think I have a good bead on life, the world, the universe
and how everything works, something comes along to destroy my
delusion. For example, somewhere back in my distant, dusty
history, some grade school teacher or some book told me that ice
skates slid on ice because they concentrated the weight of the
skater on the narrow blades, which melted the water beneath
them. Well, come to find out, it's not that at all.
What actually happens is that the blades glide on the top
surface layer of water molecules of the ice, which act like a
liquid. Hmmmph. What else did I get wrong? You
know, though, I really didn't get it wrong, I got faulty
information from authority figures of my youth, and I never
questioned it. Like, for years I tried to justify the
actions of the U.S. government during World War II when they
incarcerated American of Japanese descent. I knew it
wasn't "racist" because they weren't incarcerating the Chinese,
and last I heard, both the Japanese and Chinese are the same
race. But I just couldn't figure out how they could do
this. Then, much later, and not too long ago, I learned
about the American Progressive movement, and that followers of
this rather anti-American philosophy had done this before,
during World War I. At that time, it was the German
Americans on the receiving end of the persecution.
All taxes should be "behavior neutral", that is, there should be
only one reason for a tax: to raise revenue to fund the
legitimate operations of government. Taxes should never be
used to coerce behavior. Ever. Just like law
enforcement should never be a tool to raise revenues (think,
speed traps). Such practices destroy the faith people have
in the legitimacy of government: they destroy public
trust. The death penalty should be reserved for all
elected public officials, government employees, and judges who
take bribes or abuse their authority in a way that destroys the
public trust in government. When people are burdened,
shackled even, with so many laws that they can do nothing but
work, drink, and copulate; so many laws that just to survive
they routinely have to break some law or another, their
consciences are seared to all
laws, and all behavior becomes acceptable if it can be gotten
November 15, 2010
Proverbs 17:26 To impose a fine on a righteous man is not good;
to flog noble men is wrong.
October 5, 2010
Atheists rail against Christianity... Islam, not so much.
September 21, 2010 Why
are bedbug infestations such a problem now? What happened
in the last couple of years that could have made things
worse? Well, how about banning the use of certain
pesticides like diazinon and ddt? Banning these pesticides
was supposed to be so good for us, but now we're being overun by
How many people have died due to insect-borne disease since DDT
was banned? How many people would have gotten sick from
DDT? (Careful now, it's less that one in a million, if
July 26, 2010 The truth
is, no matter what people think. And it is fiercely
independent of the will, wishes, desires, and needs of mere
Or, to put it another way... Facts are stubborn things.
They pay no attention to the wants, desires, needs or fantasies
of mere mortal men. (Women either.) Or, What is, is, and neither
perception nor opinion can change it.
July 21, 2010 The people who do the things they do to
become rich through high incomes will not do what they do
without being compensated at a rate higher than those that work
for them. And it should be evident to all that we need
these people to do what they do. Their labor is critical
to the operation of our economy. In other words, we can
not do without the labor of these rich people, and we must pay
them at a rate that encourages them to continue doing what they
Therefore, if you tax the income of the rich disproportionately
to fund the operations of the government, they will in turn
demand more from their customers in order to compensate for the
tax burden. This tax burden is then indirectly distributed
to those who work for the rich, or those who buy products and
services from them. This makes sense since the government
really doesn't need money. They print the darn stuff after
all! What the government needs is labor, and lots of
it. If the government could produce anything, there would
be no need for taxes. So, the burden of the government
will always be on the backs of the people who do productive
things, be they "rich" business owners or the lowest paid
laborer. The ultimate burden will always be distributed
the same by indirect price adjustments in the markets for
products, services and labor no matter how the government
decides to spread out the direct taxation.
The only relief is to reduce the total burden of the
government. But this will never happen while the largest
block of voters think they are getting something for free from
the government. They don't understand that they are
bearing the burden of the government through higher prices and
lower wages. Perhaps if people understood this, if the
conservative voices would pound into the heads of people, "Tax
the rich and they will raise prices and lower wages to make up
for it. It has always been this way, it will always be
this way. Any politician who tells you differently is
lying to you, taking advantage of you, and raping your labor."
The most fair tax would be a per-person tax where everyone pays
the same, just like the admission price to a movie.
June 16, 2010 "Robbing selected Peter to pay for
I read a poem by Rudyard
Kipling titled "Gods of the Copybook
Headings". I'm still trying to figure out exactly
what the meaning of this poem is, but this line really
"Copybook Headings" were
sayings printed at the top of the page of notebooks English
schoolchildren used to have.
In the Carboniferous Epoch we were promised
abundance for all,
By robbing selected
Peter to pay for collective Paul;
But, though we had
plenty of money, there was nothing our money could buy,
And the Gods of the
Copybook Headings said: "If you don't work you die."
Currently, I am reading Edward Mandel House's "Philip Dru,
Administrator". Some say that this book has influenced
Progressivism and Liberalism (really, the same thing) for the
past century. I'm working on an analysis of this
Margaret Thatcher: "The problem with socialism is that
sooner or later, you run out of other people's money to spend."
June 8, 2010 "Happiness"
I've always wondered why the authors of the U.S. Declaration of
Independence changed the line "Life, liberty, and property" to
"Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness". But I guess
it all depends on what the word "happiness" means, or more
importantly, what it meant in 1776.
According to the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, one
meaning of the word "happiness" is "prosperity"
Another of Shakespear's famous lines: "O
happy dagger! This is thy sheath. There rust, and let me die."
Certainly Juliet did not mean that the dagger was a state of
good cheer. Rather, that fortune was favorable to her in that
she had at hand the means to dispatch herself.
2. Good luck; good fortune; prosperity.
All happiness bechance to thee in Milan! —
William Shakespeare, Wikisource:The Two Gentlemen of Verona
It seems that the meaning of the word has changed through the
years. This is not at all surprising as even today words
have a different meaning than they did even 100 years ago.
Consider the meaning of the the words "gay and "cool". The
line from a popular Christmas song "don we now our gay apparel"
takes on a totally comical meaning if today's meaning of the
word "gay" is inferred.
So, what does the sentance mean?
these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
It means that people have
the unalienable right to pursue prosperity, which of course also
What is the meaning of "property"? That's another good
question since no doubt, the meaning of the word today is not
likely to be exactly the same as it was in 1776. One thing
it definitely does imply is the complete control of something by
the owner. And if the owner of the thing does not have complete control
to do with the the thing as he wishes, it is not his property.
Whoever does have the ability to exercise this control is the
April 19, 2010 "Half a thought..."
Half a thought sounds like foolishness. Please, hear me
The providers of help rarely seem to need it. Those always
needing help never seem to get enough.
January 12, 2010 "The 'rich' must always be rich"
Great idea: Tax the rich so the government can pass out
But wait a minute. What's to stop the rich people from
demanding a raise? The taxes they talk about are always on
income, not on the money a rich person already possess. So
when the rich people demand a raise to compensate for the tax
increase, who's gonna say "no"? All the rich people will
be doing the same, so all the prices people pay will go up (or
their wages will go down) since the people who control such
things invariably are "rich". You will never get a job
from a poor person. So, who ends up paying for all those
goodies the politicians are so generously doling out? All
the non-rich people who move the boxes, drive the trucks, plant
the crops, cut the logs, build the houses, plumb the bathrooms,
empty the garbage... yeah, all those people... the same ones who
think they are getting something "for free".
It's a scam and the politicians know it. These things
don't really change the lifestyle of the "rich". They just
buy votes for the "generous" politicans, all the while
destroying prosperity for the rest of us.
January 6, 2010 "Protected Wages"
There are some people who enjoy what I call "protected
wages". These are wages that are protected from
competitive forces: minimum wage, union negotiated pay,
and government mandated compensation. Yet if you go to any
Walmart and could find out where the people shopping there
worked, I'll bet you find a universal rejection of protected
wages. Those who enjoy protected wages have no problem
rejecting products and services of others who enjoy protected
wages. People want the benefit of protected wages, but
they don't want anyone else to. A union is beneficial to
union members only if there are a great number of people not in the union.
The problem with the U.S. economy is quite simple.
Businesses have been restricted by the government imposition of
protected wages, rules, regulations, and silly policies to avoid
law suits to such an extent that their costs can not adjust in
the face of declining demand. And since the American
people soundly reject the protected wages of all of their
neighbors, American businesses are screwed. And it
dimishes us all.
The solution? Unburden American business of government
imposed costs. Then, if you as a politician and supposedly
a leader, want to persuade people to buy American, then go for
it. But the cost of doing business in the US has to be
able to adjust to meet demand.
December 8, 2009 "If at first you don't succeed..."
If at first you don't succeed, curse louder.
December 4, 2009 "This
game doesn't end well"
Life, this game doesn't end well.
November 30, 2009 "Character, like momentum"
Character is like momentum: It carries you along, for good
or for bad, whether you want to go that way or not.
Thomas Jefferson is attributed with the quote: "The
selfish spirit of commerce, which knows no country, and feels no
passion or principle but that of gain." This makes
commerce a passionless, egalitarian force like gravity.
Gravity can be quite useful in keeping your feet firmly planted
on the ground, but rather inconvenient if you have to jump off a
More quotes from Thomas Jefferson: "We may consider each
generation as a distinct nation, with a right, by the will of
its majority, to bind themselves, but none to bind the
succeeding generation, more than the inhabitants of another
reading of history convinces me that most bad government results
from too much government."
tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his
justice cannot sleep forever." [...like institutionalized theft
from the producers to the buy the votes of looters.]
innovations should not be forced on slender majorities."
[This is what the Democrats are trying to do with the overhaul
of the health care sector of our economy.]
progress of things is for liberty to yield and government to
compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the
propagation of opinions which he disbelieves and abhors is
sinful and tyrannical." [PBS comes to mind... and the NEA]
democracy will cease to exist when you take away from those who
are willing to work and give to those who would not.”
October 7, 2009 "If the government could produce
If the government could produce anything, there would be no need
Socialism: Everyone gets an equal share of nothing.
November 9, 2008 "Charity is voluntary"
Charity is voluntary, personal, moral and effective.
Coerced redistribution is involuntary, impersonal, immoral, and
May 28, 2008 "Torturing small minds"
I don't know where I came up with this, probably read it in a
blog or someone's post to a news group..
"Hobbies: Torturing small minds" That's hillarious.
May 28, 2008 "Rewarding what people invent"
From an aborted post to a message board...
The two people I know that work at the US patent office as
patent examiners tell me it's a real sweat shop. They keep
forcing them to crank out more and more patents. I doubt
they have time to thoroughly research anything. In fact,
one of the two patent examiners I knew was found dead of some
heart ailment at the age of 45. He often complained about
how stressful the job was.
That is a good point about having to provide proof of the idea's
effectiveness. If I were to submit a patent for a
"procedure" involved with extracting so-called "zero point
energy" from the fabric of the universe, I'm sure the patent
office would demand a bit of proof.
I wonder if baseball players can patent their procedure for
swinging a bat, and then make Little Leaguers all over the world
pay a royalty? It would be very difficult to
enforce. Once the secret is out, it can be copied and the
patent holder must prove the infringement. Since it is a
"procedure", and the patent holder does not suffer a material
loss, how will anyone know?
Here's the other side of the patent issue. Say that
congress decides that they don't like what physician T is doing,
that is, depriving so many people of an effective Alzheimer's
disease treatment, that a law is passed to abolish patents on
procedures. Now, along comes one Dr. Frankenstein, M.D.
PhD. who accidentally stumbles upon a "procedure" for
re-animating those that have assumed room temperature. But
knowing that he can't patent the procedure, he sets up shop
where he can perform the "procedure" on the rich, the famous,
and the politically well-connected; behind closed doors so that
no one else will ever figure out what he does. His
position is, "It's my idea, in MY head, and I choose not to
share it, since by sharing it, I gain nothing."
So, millions of people who could have been "re-animated" by Dr.
Frankenstein's "procedure" miss out because congress decides
that AD sufferers needed physician T's procedure.
I'm not agreeing with physician T's tactic. But I do agree
that there must be some way of rewarding what people invent,
even if they are concepts that haven't been fully proven at the
time of disclosure. My reason for this position is purely
selfish. I want to benefit from the ideas that creative
people have. I don't want them to keep these ideas locked
away in their heads. Short of waterboarding, how else do you
extract the ideas in another person's head as effectively as
waving wads of money under their nose?
February 4, 2008 "Compassion
for the few people pulling this wagon"
There must be compassion for the few people pulling this wagon
that so many are riding in for free.
Charity, benevolence, and generosity must result from a free
will action on the part of one person for the benefit of
Welfare (a term which is itself a corruption of "promote the
general welfare") is charity at the point of a gun. There
is no free will involved in this act. There is no
compassion for the man at the muzzle end of that gun. Some
might even describe this act as theft.
Say that there were a group of 10 people standing on a corner in
New York City, and they take a vote to help a homeless
beggar. Their plan was that the person with the most money
in their wallet --the one that had more money than 90% of rest
of them-- had to give up their money, and that a group of the
biggest and strongest were voted to enforce this "will of the
people". Certainly this would be consider stealing.
There is no generosity in stealing food from your neighbors
cupboard to feed the poor. In addition, think of
this: If a farmer can not reap the crops he has sown, he
will stop sowing crops in short order, and all will perish from
hunger. You have to allow farmers to profit from their
labor, or they WILL stop laboring. It is this way with all
There is NO compassion in theft.
January 29, 2008 "What dooms
I would say that what dooms communism is that people naturally
act in their own self interest, whether out of greed or honest
prioritization. For example, I have relatives and friends
that are always making demands of my time and abilities.
They have an never ending list of things they would like me to
do for them, like change light bulbs, fix a leaking faucet,
shovel their snow, yet they don't want to pay me for doing
it. I try to be generous and do things for them, but
sometimes, I would just rather sit around and read a book, or
pursue a hobby, or watch the squirrels in my yard attack the
bird feeder. Some might then say I'm being greedy with my time
and talents. No, it's just that sometimes I think I've
given enough and I would rather watch football than fix someone
else's toilet. And the, every so often, I have to make a
choice between doing things like chopping wood for my own
fireplace, or mopping the floor in my dad's kitchen.
So then, say I really like making stuff. Someone comes to
me and asks if I would make him a widget. Yeah, it sounds
interesting, but right now, I have squirrels to watch, and TV,
and an entire Internet to peruse. Even when I have a task
that I enjoy doing, there will always be other things competing
for my limited time and ambition.
Since I know that other people think and act this way, even when
they aren't being greedy, I know that they will only do things
without being compensated "when the spirit moves them". The
"spirit" rarely ever musters up that much ambition.
Communism, socialism, and other collectivist schemes depend on
people doing things without reward, without being compensated,
without being paid. So, they do the absolute minimum
necessary to keep out of trouble with the police.
I believe that people should be generous, and that they should
let their own conscience, not some government bureaucracy,
determine what "generosity" means. Too often, people
define "generosity" and "sharing" as "generous with my
neighbor's possessions" and "sharing the other fellow's"
time. And they use the heavy hand of government to impose
their concept of generosity and sharing.
I also believe in the existence of elitists: People who
believe in the core of their being that they superior by birth,
by inheritance, by intellect, by achievement, by chance
circumstance or any combination of these; that they are entitled
to direct the affairs of the lesser peoples; and that they are
therefore rightfully entitled to a greater share of all material
wealth. I believe that it is these people who promote and
support schemes like communism, socialism, fascism, monopolies,
cartels, crime syndicates, kingdoms and dictators for their own
January 10, 2008 "Copying
is not 'stealing', in the moral sense"
Copying something is not "stealing", in the moral sense:
After copying something someone else has said, done, made, or
written they still have the original. They have not been
deprived of the thing they made. However, copying has been
made "illegal" in order to reward inventors and creators so that
they invent and create more. So, if we want to be able to
copy, we must pressure our governments to allow it. Plain
and simple. As I said, it is not immoral to copy
something, it is not stealing; it's just illegal.
However, I see this just like speed limits. Most people
think they are set too low (judging by how often people exceed
them), yet no one pressures the government to increase
them. The 55mph highway speed limit was extremely
unpopular and routinely ignored by all except police (for
purposes of "raising revenue"), yet it took 20 years for the
government to get in line with the will of the people. How
long will it take the government to get in line with the will of
the people with respect to copying things.
July 26, 2007 "'Passion' is not enough"
"Passion" I don't think is quite enough. Nor is
"dreaming", no matter what the commercials may say.
Dreaming is easy. "Confidence" doesn't get you anywhere
either. Competence is key. Competence is hard to
find. There is no stopping a competent man who follows his
dream with a passion, confident in his ability to succeed.
October 1, 2007 "The
government doesn't need money"
The government doesn't need money: It needs labor. The
only labor that has any value is that which actually produces
something useful. It doesn't matter how the tax system
slices and dices the proportions initially levied on the sundry
components of the economy. A portion of the labor of those
doing productive work will be confiscated in order for the
government to function. In other words, the government
enslaves the people. The full burden of the cost of
government is borne on the shoulders of those that do
productive work. The rich will still be rich.
Company owners will still make more than their managers.
Managers will still make more than the workers. This is
the way it was, the way it is, the way it always will be.
Anyone who does productive work but thinks "the other fellow"
will bear the burden of the government is fooling herself.
Taxation can change people's behavior and make businesses and
productive people flee the state, but it can't bring prosperity.
June 27, 2007 "Illegal
aliens taking our jobs, taking our country"
Please don't betray us. Stop these illegal aliens from
taking our jobs and taking our country.
The solution is simply to cut off the gravy train. Allow
employers to ask for proof of citizenship and then put employers
who hire illegals in jail for a year. Put illegal aliens
in a concentration camp until they, their home government, or
someone pays to have them shipped home.
April 5, 2007 "Reality
bend to the wishes and desires of men"
Reality doesn't bend to the wishes and desires of men.
March 19, 2007 "Let's
try 'Thou shall not steal' for a change"
What we have been doing is no longer working
The way we have been used to doing things in this State are
obviously no longer working. Let's try a simple
change. Let's start following the simple rule of "Thou
shall not steal". Or to put it another way, "You will not
take those things which do not belong to you".
Many laws and policies-- widely supported by the people of this
country-- that are causing the problems the United States is now
facing violate this simple rule.
There is no compassion in theft.
There is no generosity in robbery.
There is no kindness in extortion.
Violate God's law, and God will punish you.
God is punishing the people of the United States because they
have institutionalized the violation of His law forbidding
March 12, 2007 "The Truth has a frustrating way
of ignoring concensus"
The Truth has a frustrating way of ignoring concensus.
People must be
causing global warming because only people can pay taxes.
If God was causing the Earth to warm it would be a problem for
Liberals: To send God a tax bill, Liberals wouldn't know
where to find him.
Needy people never seem to find enough help.
Self-sufficient people never seem to need it.
February 18, 2007 "Liberal philosophy, Liberal
Liberal philosophy: Ruling power belongs solely in the
hands of the elite class.
Liberal policy: Confiscate labor from the productive to
distribute per the needs
and desires of the elite ruling class, and preserve their their
status of power.
reason the rich don't pay taxes"
Ever work for a poor
man? If you tax all of the "rich", won't they, as a class,
merely put upward pressure on their incomes until their previous
standard of living is recovered? So, where will the
"money" come from? That's the dirty little secret.
The government doesn't really need or want mere currency.
It craves LABOR. So, raising taxes will just allow the
government to grow and the burden of supporting this expanded
government will fall squarely on the backs of all those who have
alway carried it, and always will: The productive.
24, 2007 "How much
of your money can I spend?"
How much of your money can
I spend? That's a good question. I can spend every
dime you have, and it would cost me nothing, since it is, after
money. Matter of fact, I can spend so much of your money,
that it will take you years and years and years to earn
it. And again, there is no cost to me. It's easy for
me to spend your money. Of course, I get to keep the
things it buys, not you. Some would call that
stealing. Most call it "taxes".
13, 2007 "The real reason Liberals hate
The antithesis of Liberalism, "Thou shall NOT
steal": The real reason Liberals hate America
Liberalism can not exist without taking labor, life, or
possessions. That runs afoul of the 7th Commandment "Thou
shall not steal". Therefore, Liberals must tear down every
remnant of morality because lurking in there is the antithesis
of Liberalism, "Thou shall NOT steal".
June 13, 2007 "Mass imigration of educated is a
The mass and excessive immigration policies of the US government
brings in so many people with "technical education", that wages
for home-grown technically educated people are about 50% less
than what it should be. This makes the effort require to
follow a technical career unattractive.
Don't be fooled: A "technical education" in India is NOT
what it is here. What the government is bringing in is
merely bodies to forcibly press down wages. This is
creating a security crisis. Smart Americans would rather
do something else and make more money. America is losing
it's technical preeminence and this will transfer to the defense
June 13, 2007 "'Women with real needs' need men
with real wallets"
or "To 'Women with real needs' men
are just upright dogs with big wallets"
Liberalism is all about being generous and caring with the blood
sweat and tears of someone else.
"Women with real needs support Hillary Clinton", a recent
magazine headline exclaimed. See, the people that "need"
support Liberal Democrats. These people have no problem
taking what does not belong to them.
"Thou shall not steal" is anathema to all that is Liberal.
Self-sufficient people never seem to need any help.
"Needy" people never seem to get enough.
June 12, 2007 "It's not about control,
Liberalism is about labor"
Liberals can't do anything for themselves. They need the
labor of others to accomplish anything. They don't want to
buy that labor, they want to confiscate that labor, or steal it,
or con it, or sneak it.
To be a Liberal means never having to use your own food to feed
June 11, 2007 "Liberal: A peron who steals
to be generous"
Liberals can't do anything for themselves, so they have to steal
from those who do. All liberal laws, policies, and ideas
involve TAKING something from someone else by force, stealth, or
Main Page PC
Brain Failure Notes References pg. 1 References pg. 2
You shall not take that which
belongs to another.
Blog Archive (June 15, 2007)
Blog Archive (January 23, 2006)
reach me by mai|ing to perpetualcommotion.com at gmail
Inception: February 18, 2007
Updated: January 9, 2011