"Give with a free hand, but give only your own."
 -- J.R.R. Tolkien The Children of Hurin
- The Distillery -

(In other words, "I found it interesting, but haven't had the time to research and categorize it yet.")

Potential treatment for Parkinson's disease discovered

Date: July 16, 2015
Source: Nanyang Technological University
Summary: Scientists have found that existing anti-malaria drugs could be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that causes a person to lose control of motor movements, such as the ability to move his or her hands, arms, and legs.
...two anti-malaria drugs which worked: Chloroquine and Amodiaquine...

Journal Reference:

Nuclear receptor Nurr1 agonists enhance its dual functions and improve behavioral deficits in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease.
Chun-Hyung Kim, Baek-Soo Han, Jisook Moon, Deog-Joong Kim, Joon Shin, Sreekanth Rajan, Quoc Toan Nguyen, Mijin Sohn, Won-Gon Kim, Minjoon Han, Inhye Jeong, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Eun-Hye Lee, Yupeng Tu, Jacqueline L. Naffin-Olivos, Chang-Hwan Park, Dagmar Ringe, Ho Sup Yoon, Gregory A. Petsko, Kwang-Soo Kim.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015; 112 (28): 8756 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1509742112

Cancer-fighting spices offer flavorful way to eat healthy
Published June 30, 2015
“Turmeric..." Adding freshly ground black pepper can strengthen the benefits of turmeric in some dishes, and even help prevent breast cancer tumors from growing, according to a study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.
... Fennel... contains anethole which restricts the adhesive properties of cancer cells. Ginger, another cancer-fighting spice, consists of not one, but two anti-cancer compounds called gingerol and zingerol which complement each other in the body... capsaicin in chili peppers ignites the body’s fight against potential cancer cells. Studies have shown it can also dramatically reduce leukemia cells. Garlic, onions, shallots and leeks can also act as cancer preventers, while adding flavor to many everyday dishes.

Hay fever and sleeping tablets 'can increase risk of Alzheimer's and dementia'
Jan 26, 2015 21:26
By Ben Rossington
...The drugs have an ­“anticholinergic” effect, which blocks a chemical transmitter that people with Alzheimer’s lack... at higher risk if they took at least 10mg a day of antidepressant doxepin, 4mg a day of antihistamine diphenhydramine, or 5mg a day of oxybutynin for more than three years...

teixobactin: If this new antibiotic will treat tough "chronic infections", and if (many cases of)AD is caused by spirochetes (neurospirochetosis), then maybe this would work on AD too.

Newly discovered antibiotic kills pathogens without resistance
Date: January 8, 2015
Source: Northeastern University
Summary: For years, pathogens' resis­tance to antibi­otics has put them one step ahead of researchers, which is causing a public health crisis. But now scientists have discovered a new antibi­otic that elim­i­nates pathogens without encoun­tering any detectable resistance -- a finding that chal­lenges long-held sci­en­tific beliefs and holds great promise for treating chronic infec­tions like tuber­cu­losis and those caused by MRSA.

A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance.
Nature. 2015 Jan 7. doi: 10.1038/nature14098. [Epub ahead of print]
Ling LL1, Schneider T2, Peoples AJ1, Spoering AL1, Engels I2, Conlon BP3, Mueller A2, Schäberle TF4, Hughes DE1, Epstein S5, Jones M6, Lazarides L6, Steadman VA6, Cohen DR1, Felix CR1, Fetterman KA1, Millett WP1, Nitti AG1, Zullo AM1, Chen C3, Lewis K3.
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. Most antibiotics were produced by screening soil microorganisms, but this limited resource of cultivable bacteria was overmined by the 1960s. Synthetic approaches to produce antibiotics have been unable to replace this platform. Uncultured bacteria make up approximately 99% of all species in external environments, and are an untapped source of new antibiotics. We developed several methods to grow uncultured organisms by cultivation in situ or by using specific growth factors. Here we report a new antibiotic that we term teixobactin, discovered in a screen of uncultured bacteria. Teixobactin inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to a highly conserved motif of lipid II (precursor of peptidoglycan) and lipid III (precursor of cell wall teichoic acid). We did not obtain any mutants of Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to teixobactin. The properties of this compound suggest a path towards developing antibiotics that are likely to avoid development of resistance.
PMID: 25561178 [PubMed]

Blueberries may help reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness
Date: January 8, 2015
Source: Florida State University
Summary: Just one cup of blueberries per day could be the key to reducing blood pressure and arterial stiffness, both of which are associated with cardiovascular disease.
...22 grams of freeze-dried blueberry powder -- the equivalent to one cup of fresh blueberries...

Journal Reference:
Daily Blueberry Consumption Improves Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women with Pre- and Stage 1-Hypertension: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Sarah A. Johnson, Arturo Figueroa, Negin Navaei, Alexei Wong, Roy Kalfon, Lauren T. Ormsbee, Rafaela G. Feresin, Marcus L. Elam, Shirin Hooshmand, Mark E. Payton, Bahram H. Arjmandi.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.11.001

Could gut microbes help treat brain disorders? Mounting research tightens their connection with the brain
Date: January 8, 2015
Source: Kavli Foundation
Summary: The community of microbes that inhabits the body, known as the microbiome, has a powerful influence on the brain and may offer a pathway to new therapies for psychiatric and neurological disorders, according to researchers.
...exploring whether the microbiome plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. "There are flash bulbs going off in the dark, suggesting that very complex neurodegenerative disorders may be linked to the microbiome. But once again this is very speculative. These seminal findings, the flash bulbs, are only just beginning to illuminate our vision of the gut-microbiome-brain connection,"...

Nasal spray with insulin equivalent shows promise as treatment for adults with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s dementia
Date: January 8, 2015
Source: Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Summary: A human-made form of insulin delivered by nasal spray may improve working memory and other mental capabilities in adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia, according to a pilot study. The researchers also sought to determine if the insulin detemir doses would cause any negative side effects, and found only minor adverse reactions among the subjects.

[NOTE:  People with type-2 diabetes have found through personal experience that cinnamon helps control their blood sugar levels.  So this may be why some people with AD respond positively to adding cinnamon capsule supplements to their diet.  Also, adding medium chain triglycerides (medium chain fatty acids) may help because the liver converts the MCTs directly to ketones, and cells not able to use sugar apparently often are still able to use the ketones.]

Long-Acting Intranasal Insulin Detemir Improves Cognition for Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease Dementia.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Claxton A1, Baker LD2, Hanson A1, Trittschuh EH1, Cholerton B3, Morgan A1, Callaghan M1, Arbuckle M4, Behl C1, Craft S2.
Abstract: Previous trials have shown promising effects of intranasally administered insulin for adults with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These trials used regular insulin, which has a shorter half-life compared to long-lasting insulin analogues such as insulin detemir. The current trial examined whether intranasal insulin detemir improves cognition or daily functioning for adults with MCI or AD. Sixty adults diagnosed with MCI or mild to moderate AD received placebo (n = 20), 20 IU of insulin detemir (n = 21), or 40 IU of insulin detemir (n = 19) for 21 days, administered with a nasal drug delivery device. Results revealed a treatment effect for the memory composite for the 40 IU group compared with placebo (p < 0.05). This effect was moderated by APOE status (p < 0.05), reflecting improvement for APOE-ε4 carriers (p < 0.02), and worsening for non-carriers (p < 0.02). Higher insulin resistance at baseline predicted greater improvement with the 40 IU dose (r = 0.54, p < 0.02). Significant treatment effects were also apparent for verbal working memory (p < 0.03) and visuospatial working memory (p < 0.04), reflecting improvement for subjects who received the high dose of intranasal insulin detemir. No significant differences were found for daily functioning or executive functioning. In conclusion, daily treatment with 40 IU insulin detemir modulated cognition for adults with AD or MCI, with APOE-related differences in treatment response for the primary memory composite. Future research is needed to examine the mechanistic basis of APOE-related treatment differences, and to further assess the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir.
PMID: 25374101 [PubMed]

Blocking receptor in brain's immune cells counters Alzheimer's in mice
Date: December 9, 2014
Source: Stanford University Medical Center
Summary: The mass die-off of nerve cells in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease may largely occur because an entirely different class of brain cells, called microglia, begin to fall down on the job, according to a new study. The researchers found that, in mice, blocking the action of a single molecule on the surface of microglia restored the cells' ability to get the job done -- and reversed memory loss and myriad other Alzheimer's-like features in the animals.

Prostaglandin signaling suppresses beneficial microglial function in Alzheimer's disease models.
J Clin Invest. 2014 Dec 8. pii: 77487. doi: 10.1172/JCI77487. [Epub ahead of print]
Johansson JU, Woodling NS, Wang Q, Panchal M, Liang X, Trueba-Saiz A, Brown HD, Mhatre SD, Loui T, Andreasson KI.

Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, perform critical inflammatory and noninflammatory functions that maintain normal neural function. For example, microglia clear misfolded proteins, elaborate trophic factors, and regulate and terminate toxic inflammation. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, beneficial microglial functions become impaired, accelerating synaptic and neuronal loss. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to microglial dysfunction is an important objective for identifying potential strategies to delay progression to AD. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin E2 (COX/PGE2) pathway has been implicated in preclinical AD development, both in human epidemiology studies and in transgenic rodent models of AD. Here, we evaluated murine models that recapitulate microglial responses to Aβ peptides and determined that microglia-specific deletion of the gene encoding the PGE2 receptor EP2 restores microglial chemotaxis and Aβ clearance, suppresses toxic inflammation, increases cytoprotective insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling, and prevents synaptic injury and memory deficits. Our findings indicate that EP2 signaling suppresses beneficial microglia functions that falter during AD development and suggest that inhibition of the COX/PGE2/EP2 immune pathway has potential as a strategy to restore healthy microglial function and prevent progression to AD.
PMID: 25485684 [PubMed]


Interesting things about canola (rapeseed) oil to investigate:

"Use "medium chain triglycerides" (MCTs) to supply the ailing neurons with an alternative energy source, since they are having a problem with using the sugar glucose, which is their normal energy source."

Yes. The brain is 60 % fat. Myelin sheets 75 %.

The opposite "snack" for the brain would be canola oil, when I learned this a few years ago I saved my eye sight.
A few others found out about it too;

"My cholesterol level was 150. After a year using Canola oil I tested 260. I switched back to pure olive oil and it has taken 5 years to get it down to 160. Thus began this project to find answers since most Doctors will say that Canola oil is O.K.

Treat and Prevent UTIs Without Drugs
by Chris Kresser
The typical dose of D-mannose for UTI treatment is 500 mg, in capsule or powder form, taken in a glass of water or juice every two to three hours for five days… supplements that help disrupt biofilms can be useful in treating and preventing UTIs... [bromelain???]

Antibiot Khimioter. 2010;55(9-10):11-3.
[Bactericidal activity of colloidal silver against grampositive and gramnegative bacteria].
[Article in Russian]
Afonina IA, Kraeva LA, Tseneva GIa.
It was shown that colloidal silver solution prepared in cooperation with the A. F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, had significant bactericidal activity. Stable bactericidal effect on gramnegative microorganisms was observed after their 2-hour exposition in the solution of colloidal silver at a concentration of 10 ppm. Grampositive capsule-forming microorganisms were less susceptible to the colloidal silver solution: their death was observed after the 4-hour exposition in the solution.
PMID: 21400747  [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Silver Makes Antibiotics Thousands of Times More Effective
The antimicrobial treatment could help to solve modern bacterial resistance
 Jun 20, 2013 |By Brian Owens and Nature magazine
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Like werewolves and vampires, bacteria have a weakness: silver. The precious metal has been used to fight infection for thousands of years — Hippocrates first described its antimicrobial properties in 400 bc — but how it works has been a mystery. Now, a team led by James Collins, a biomedical engineer at Boston University in Massachusetts, has described how silver can disrupt bacteria, and shown that the ancient treatment could help to deal with the thoroughly modern scourge of antibiotic resistance. The work is published today in Science Translational Medicine.
A shot in the arm for old antibiotics
Date: June 19, 2013
Source: Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard
Summary: Slipping bacteria some silver could give old antibiotics new life, scientists report. This could pave the way for new therapies for drug-resistant and recurrent infections.
Journal Reference: 1.J. R. Morones-Ramirez, J. A. Winkler, C. S. Spina, J. J. Collins. Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-Negative Bacteria. Science Translational Medicine, 2013; 5 (190): 190ra81 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3006276

Certain gut bacteria may induce metabolic changes following exposure to artificial sweeteners
Date: September 17, 2014
Source: Weizmann Institute of Science
Summary: Artificial sweeteners have long been promoted as diet and health aids. But breaking research shows that these products may be leading to the very diseases they were said to help prevent: scientists have discovered that, after exposure to artificial sweeteners, our gut bacteria may be triggering harmful metabolic changes.
Jotham Suez, Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Christoph A. Thaiss, Ori Maza, David Israeli, Niv Zmora, Shlomit Gilad, Adina Weinberger, Yael Kuperman, Alon Harmelin, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Hagit Shapiro, Zamir Halpern, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nature13793
Asian Americans lower insulin resistance on traditional diet
Date: September 17, 2014
Source: Joslin Diabetes Center
Summary: Asian Americans have been shown to lower insulin resistance on a traditional diet, researchers report. One part of this puzzle may lie in the transition from traditional high-fiber, low-fat Asian diets to current westernized diets, which may pose extra risks for those of Asian heritage, says the senior author of the study.
William C. Hsu, Ka Hei Karen Lau, Motonobu Matsumoto, Dalia Moghazy, Hillary Keenan, George L. King. Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity by Isoenergy High Carbohydrate Traditional Asian Diet: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Feasibility Study. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (9): e106851 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106851
How stress tears us apart: Enzyme attacks synaptic molecule, leading to cognitive impairment
Date: September 18, 2014
Source: Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Summary: Why is it that when people are too stressed they are often grouchy, grumpy, nasty, distracted or forgetful? Researchers have just highlighted a fundamental synaptic mechanism that explains the relationship between chronic stress and the loss of social skills and cognitive impairment. When triggered by stress, an enzyme attacks a synaptic regulatory molecule in the brain, leading to these problems.
Michael A. van der Kooij, Martina Fantin, Emilia Rejmak, Jocelyn Grosse, Olivia Zanoletti, Celine Fournier, Krishnendu Ganguly, Katarzyna Kalita, Leszek Kaczmarek, Carmen Sandi. Role for MMP-9 in stress-induced downregulation of nectin-3 in hippocampal CA1 and associated behavioural alterations. Nature Communications, 2014; 5: 4995 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5995
A heart-felt need for dairy food: Small serving beneficial, large not necessary
Date: September 16, 2014
Source: Monash University
Summary: A daily small serve of dairy food may reduce the risk of heart disease or stroke, even in communities where such foods have not traditionally formed part of the diet according to new research.
More cheese, please! News study shows dairy is good for your metabolic health
Date: September 16, 2014
Source: Canadian Science Publishing (NRC Research Press)
Summary: Researchers studied the dairy-eating habits of healthy French-Canadians' and monitored how dairy consumption may have an effect on their overall metabolic health. It's well known that dairy products contain calcium and minerals good for bones, but new research has shown that dairy consumption may also have beneficial effects on metabolic health and can reduce risk of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Marine S. Da Silva, Pierre Julien, Patrick Couture, Simone Lemieux, Marie-Claude Vohl, Iwona Rudkowska. Associations between dairy intake and metabolic risk parameters in a healthy French-Canadian population. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2014; 1 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0154
Consumption of high-fat dairy products associated with lower risk of developing diabetes
Date: September 15, 2014
Source: Diabetologia
Summary: People with the highest consumption of high-fat dairy products -- eight or more portions per day -- have a 23 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those with the lowest consumption -- one or less per day, a new study shows.
Small, fast, and crowded: Mammal traits amplify tick-borne illness
Date:September 18, 2014
Source:Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies
Summary:In the U.S., some 300,000 people are diagnosed with Lyme disease annually. Thousands also suffer from babesiosis and anaplasmosis, tick-borne ailments that can occur alone or as co-infections with Lyme disease. In our struggle to manage the ever-growing list of tick-borne diseases, we need to understand which animals magnify human disease risk. New results suggest when generalist pathogens emerge, small mammals with large populations and a fast pace of life warrant careful monitoring.

Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune system
Date: June 5, 2014
Source: University of Southern California
Summary: In the first evidence of a natural intervention triggering
stem cell-based regeneration of an organ or system, a study shows that
cycles of prolonged fasting not only protect against immune system
damage -- a major side effect of chemotherapy -- but also induce
immune system regeneration, shifting stem cells from a dormant state
to a state of self-renewal.

Journal Reference:
Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression.
Chia-Wei Cheng, Gregor B. Adams, Laura Perin, Min Wei, Xiaoying Zhou,
Ben S. Lam, Stefano Da Sacco, Mario Mirisola, David I. Quinn, Tanya B.
Dorff, John J. Kopchick, Valter D. Longo.
Cell Stem Cell, 2014; 14 (6): 810 DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014

Bacteria help explain why stress, fear trigger heart attacks
Date: June 10, 2014
Source: American Society for Microbiology
Summary: The axiom that stress, emotional shock, or overexertion may
trigger heart attacks in vulnerable people may now be explainable,
researchers say. Hormones released during these events appear to cause
bacterial biofilms on arterial walls to disperse, allowing plaque
deposits to rupture into the bloodstream, according to research.

Journal Reference:
Bacteria Present in Carotid Arterial Plaques Are Found as Biofilm Deposits Which May Contribute to Enhanced Risk of Plaque Rupture.
Bernard B. Lanter, Karin Sauer and David G. Davies.
mBio, June 2014 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01206-14

Findings point toward one of first therapies for Lou Gehrig's disease
Date: June 12, 2014
Source: Oregon State University
Summary: Researchers have determined that a copper compound [CuII(atsm)] known for decades may form the basis for a therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease. In humans, prior to this, no therapy for ALS has ever been discovered that could extend lifespan more than a few additional months.

Journal Reference:

Oral Treatment with CuII(atsm) Increases Mutant SOD1 In Vivo but Protects Motor Neurons and Improves the Phenotype of a Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
B. R. Roberts, N. K. H. Lim, E. J. McAllum, P. S. Donnelly, D. J.
Hare, P. A. Doble, B. J. Turner, K. A. Price, S. Chun Lim, B. M.
Paterson, J. L. Hickey, T. W. Rhoads, J. R. Williams, K. M. Kanninen,
L. W. Hung, J. R. Liddell, A. Grubman, J.-F. Monty, R. M. Llanos, D.
R. Kramer, J. F. B. Mercer, A. I. Bush, C. L. Masters, J. A. Duce,
Q.-X. Li, J. S. Beckman, K. J. Barnham, A. R. White, P. J. Crouch.
Journal of Neuroscience, 2014; 34 (23): 8021 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4196-13.2014

Immune response affects sleep and memory
Date: June 12, 2014
Source: University of Leicester
Summary: Sickness-induced insomnia is common because of the link
between the brain and the immune system. Fighting off illness- rather
than the illness itself- causes sleep deprivation and affects memory,
a new study has found. Biologists said a common perception is that if
you are sick, you sleep more. But the study, carried out in flies,
found that sickness induced insomnia is quite common.

Journal Reference:

Immune stimulation reduces sleep and memory ability inDrosophila melanogaster.
Eamonn B. Mallon, Akram Alghamdi, Robert T.K. Holdbrook, Ezio Rosato.
PeerJ, 2014; 2: e434 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.434

'Tomato pill' improves function of blood vessels in patients with cardiovascular disease
Date: June 9, 2014
Source: University of Cambridge
Summary: A daily supplement of an extract found in tomatoes may
improve the function of blood vessels in patients with cardiovascular
disease, according to new research. The incidence of cardiovascular is
notably reduced in southern Europe where a 'Mediterranean diet'
consisting of a larger consumption of fruit, vegetables and olive oil
predominates. Recent dietary studies suggest that this diet reduces
the incidence of events related to the disease, including heart attack
and stroke, in patients at high cardiovascular risk, or those who have
previously had the disease.

Journal Reference:

Effects of Oral Lycopene Supplementation on Vascular Function in
Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Healthy Volunteers: A
Randomised Controlled Trial.
Parag R. Gajendragadkar, Annette Hubsch, Kaisa M. Mäki-Petäjä, Martin
Serg, Ian B. Wilkinson, Joseph Cheriyan.
PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (6): e99070 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099070

LRRK2 inhibitors may be key to combating parkinson's disease
Date: June 10, 2014
Source: University of Alabama at Birmingham
Summary: An enzyme closely associated with genetic forms of
Parkinson’s disease appears to play a larger role in its progression
than previously thought, say investigators. The new research offers
encouraging evidence that drugs to block this enzyme, known as
leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 or LRRK2, could slow -- or even prevent
-- Parkinson's from developing.

Journal Reference:
Abrogation of  -synuclein-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration in LRRK2-deficient rats.
J. P. L. Daher, L. A. Volpicelli-Daley, J. P. Blackburn, M. S. Moehle,
A. B. West.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014; DOI:

New sensor could light the way forward in low-cost medical imaging

Date: May 23, 2014
Source: University of Surrey
Summary: A new type of light sensor that could allow medical and
security imaging via low cost cameras has been developed by
researchers. Near infrared light can be used to perform non-invasive
medical procedures, such as measuring the oxygen level in tissue and
detecting tumors. It is also already commonly used in security camera
systems and for quality control in the agriculture and food industry.

Journal Reference:

Ultrahigh Performance C60 Nanorod Large Area Flexible Photoconductor Devices via Ultralow Organic and Inorganic Photodoping.
Rinku Saran, Vlad Stolojan, Richard J. Curry.
Scientific Reports, 2014; 4 DOI: 10.1038/srep05041

Anti-diabetic drug slows aging and lengthens lifespan, animal study suggests
Date: June 2, 2014
Source: KU Leuven
Summary: Researchers have provided new evidence that metformin, the
world’s most widely used anti-diabetic drug, slows aging and increases
lifespan. Scientists teased out the mechanism behind metformin's
age-slowing effects: the drug causes an increase in the number of
toxic oxygen molecules released in the cell and this, surprisingly,
increases cell robustness and longevity in the long term.

Journal Reference:
Metformin promotes lifespan through mitohormesis via the peroxiredoxin PRDX-2.
Wouter De Haes, Lotte Frooninckx, Roel Van Assche, Arne Smolders,
Geert Depuydt, Johan Billen, Bart P. Braeckman, Liliane Schoofs, and
Liesbet Temmerman.
PNAS, 2014 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1321776111

New amyloid-reducing compound could be a preventive measure against Alzheimer's

Date: June 3, 2014
Source: NYU Langone Medical Center
Summary: Scientists have identified a compound, called 2-PMAP, in
animal studies that reduced by more than half levels of amyloid
proteins in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Journal Reference:
Modulation of amyloid precursor protein expression reduces β-amyloid deposition in a mouse model.
Ayodeji A. Asuni, Maitea Guridi, Joanna E.
Pankiewicz, Sandrine Sanchez, Martin J. Sadowski.
Annals of Neurology, 2014; DOI: 10.1002/ana.24149

Newborns exposed to dirt, dander, germs may have lower allergy, asthma risk
Date: June 6, 2014
Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine
Summary: Infants exposed to rodent and pet dander, roach allergens and
a wide variety of household bacteria in the first year of life appear
less likely to suffer from allergies, wheezing and asthma, according
to results of a recent study. Those who encounter such substances
before their first birthdays seem to benefit rather than suffer from
them. Importantly, the protective effects of both allergen and
bacterial exposure were not seen if a child's first encounter with
these substances occurred after age 1, the research found.

Journal Reference:

Effects of early-life exposure to allergens and bacteria on recurrent wheeze and atopy in urban children.
Susan V. Lynch, Robert A. Wood, Homer Boushey, Leonard B. Bacharier,
Gordon R. Bloomberg, Meyer Kattan, George T. O’Connor, Megan T.
Sandel, Agustin Calatroni, Elizabeth Matsui, Christine C. Johnson,
Henry Lynn, Cynthia M. Visness, Katy F. Jaffee, Peter J. Gergen, Diane
R. Gold, Rosalind J. Wright, Kei Fujimura, Marcus Rauch, William W.
Busse, James E. Gern.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2014; DOI:

Sleep after learning strengthens connections between brain cells and enhances memory
Date: June 5, 2014
Source: NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine
Summary: Researchers show for the first time that sleep after learning
encourages the growth of dendritic spines, the tiny protrusions from
brain cells that connect to other brain cells and facilitate the
passage of information across synapses, the junctions at which brain
cells meet.

Journal Reference:
Sleep promotes branch-specific formation of dendritic spines after learning.
G. Yang, C. S. W. Lai, J. Cichon, L. Ma, W. Li, W.-B. Gan.
Science, 2014; 344 (6188): 1173 DOI: 10.1126/science.1249098

New cause of high blood pressure, heart disease discovered: Phosphate-rich foods

Date: May 5, 2014
Source: Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien
Summary: Phosphate-rich foods include processed cheese, Parmesan, cola, baking
powder and most processed foods. Phosphates are widely used in the
food industry as preservatives and pH stabilizers. When large
quantities of phosphates are consumed, production of the FGF23 hormone
is stimulated, which has a negative effect on the cardiovascular
system.  One expert warns that “our phosphate consumption is relevant
for our state of health.”

Journal References:

Olena Andrukhova, Svetlana Slavic, Alina Smorodchenko, Ute Zeitz,
Victoria Shalhoub, Beate Lanske, Elena E. Pohl and Reinhold G. Erben.
FGF23 Regulates Renal Sodium Handling and Blood Pressure. EMBO
Molecular Medicine, May 2014 DOI: 10.1002/emmm.201303716
Olena Andrukhova, Alina Smorodchenko, Monika Egerbacher, Carmen
Streicher, Ute Zeitz, Regina Goetz, Victoria Shalhoub, Moosa
Mohammadi, Elena E Pohl, Beate Lanske, Reinhold G Erben. FGF23
promotes renal calcium reabsorption through the TRPV5 channel. The
EMBO Journal, 2014; DOI: 10.1002/embj.201284188

Novel antioxidant makes old arteries seem young again, study shows
Date: May 6, 2014
Source: University of Colorado at Boulder
Summary: An antioxidant that targets specific cell structures --
mitochondria -- may be able to reverse some of the negative effects of
aging on arteries, reducing the risk of heart disease, according to a
new study. When the research team gave old mice -- the equivalent of
70- to 80-year-old humans -- water containing an antioxidant known as
MitoQ for four weeks, their arteries functioned as well as the
arteries of mice with an equivalent human age of just 25 to 35 years.

Scientists discover a natural molecule to treat type 2 diabetes: Molecule mimics some effect of physical exercise
Date: May 12, 2014
Source: Université Laval
Summary: Researchers have discovered a natural molecule that could be
used to treat insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The molecule, a
derivative of omega-3 fatty acids, mimics some of the effects of
physical exercise on blood glucose regulation.

Diets rich in antioxidant resveratrol fail to reduce deaths, heart disease or cancer
Date: May 12, 2014
Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine
Summary: A study of Italians who consume a diet rich in resveratrol --
the compound found in red wine, dark chocolate and berries -- finds
they live no longer than and are just as likely to develop
cardiovascular disease or cancer as those who eat or drink smaller
amounts of the antioxidant.

Journal Reference:

Mortality in Older Community-Dwelling Adults.
Richard D. Semba, Luigi Ferrucci, Benedetta Bartali, Mireia
Urpí-Sarda, Raul Zamora-Ros, Kai Sun, Antonio Cherubini, Stefania
Bandinelli, Cristina Andres-Lacueva. Resveratrol Levels and All-Cause
JAMA Internal Medicine,
2014; DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1582

Herpes-loaded stem cells used to kill brain tumors
Date: May 16, 2014
Source: Harvard University
Summary: A potential solution for how to more effectively kill tumor
cells using cancer-killing viruses has been discovered by researchers.
The investigators report that trapping virus-loaded stem cells in a
gel and applying them to tumors significantly improved survival in
mice with glioblastoma multiform, the most common brain tumor in human
adults and also the most difficult to treat.

Journal Reference:

Matthias Duebgen, Jordi Martinez-Quintanilla, Kaoru Tamura, Shawn
Hingtgen, Navid Redjal, Hiroaki Wakimoto And Khalid Shah.
Stem Cells Loaded With Multimechanistic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Variants for Brain Tumor Therapy.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, May
2014 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/dju090

Gum disease bacteria may cause heart disease
Date: May 18, 2014
Source: American Society for Microbiology
Summary: The same bacteria that cause gum disease also promotes heart
disease -- a discovery that could change the way heart disease is
diagnosed and treated. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in
the North America. Gum disease affects 46 percent of the U.S.
population and is caused by bacteria that grow on the teeth under the
gums. Although doctors know that patients with gum disease are at
higher risk for heart disease, gum disease isn't viewed as a
traditional risk factor for heart disease.
... four specific bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema
denticola [a spirochete], Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium

American Society for Microbiology. "Gum disease bacteria may cause
heart disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 May 2014.

Update Wikipedia entry for teponema denticola for neurospirochetosis.
Create Wikipedia page for neurospirochetosis???

Bacteria in mouth may diagnose pancreatic cancer
Date: May 18, 2014
Source: American Society for Microbiology
Summary: Patients with pancreatic cancer have a different and distinct
profile of specific bacteria in their saliva compared to healthy
controls and even patients with other cancers or pancreatic diseases,
according to new research. These findings could form the basis for a
test to diagnose the disease in its early stages.

[Bacteria is maybe the CAUSE???? not just a symptom.]

American Society for Microbiology.
"Bacteria in mouth may diagnose pancreatic cancer."
 ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 May 2014.

Pine bark substance could be potent melanoma drug
Date: May 20, 2014
Source: Penn State
Summary: A substance that comes from pine bark is a potential source
for a new treatment of melanoma, according to researchers. Current
melanoma drugs targeting single proteins can initially be effective,
but resistance develops relatively quickly and the disease recurs. In
those instances, resistance usually develops when the cancer cell's
circuitry bypasses the protein that the drug acts on, or when the cell
uses other pathways to avoid the point on which the drug acts.

Journal References:

R. Gowda, S. V. Madhanupantula, O. F. Kuzu, A. Sharma, G. P.
Robertson. Targeting Multiple Key Signaling Pathways in Melanoma using
Leelamine. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 2014; DOI:
O. F. Kuzu, R. Gowda, A. Sharma, G. P. Robertson.
Leelamine mediates cancer cell death through inhibition of intracellular cholesterol transport.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 2014; DOI:

Research explains action of drug that may slow aging, related disease
Date: May 20, 2014
Source: Oregon State University
Summary: A proven approach to slow the aging process is dietary
restriction, but new research helps explain the action of a drug that
appears to mimic that process -- rapamycin. The advance moves science
closer to a compound that might slow aging and reduce age-related
disease. The lead researcher said that this study "could provide a way
not only to increase lifespan but to address some age-related diseases
and improve general health."
...the combined use of rapamycin and metformin prevented the unwanted
side effect....

[wasn't there another article saying rapamycin may be useful for treating autism?]

Journal Reference:

Z. Yu, R. Wang, W. C. Fok, A. Coles, A. B. Salmon, V. I. Perez.
Rapamycin and Dietary Restriction Induce Metabolically Distinctive Changes in Mouse Liver.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2014; DOI:

Some pancreatic cancer treatments may be going after wrong targets
Date: May 22, 2014
Source: University of Michigan Health System
Summary: New research represents a significant change in the
understanding of how pancreatic cancer grows – and how it might be
defeated. Unlike other types of cancer, pancreatic cancer produces a
lot of scar tissue and inflammation. For years, researchers believed
that this scar tissue, called desmoplasia, helped the tumor grow, and
they’ve designed treatments to attack this. But new research finds
that when you eliminate desmoplasia, tumors grow even more quickly and
aggressively. In the study, mice in which the desmoplasia was
eliminated developed tumors earlier and died sooner.

...What they found in this study was that a drug designed to attack
blood vessels, called an angiogenesis inhibitor, significantly
improved overall survival in the mice who had desmoplasia blocked.
Angiogenesis inhibitors already exist on the market with approval from
the U.S. Food and Drug Administration...
[Curcumin is an anti-angiogenesis agent.  Myricetin?]

Journal Reference:

Stromal Elements Act to Restrain, Rather Than Support, Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Andrew D. Rhim, Paul E. Oberstein, Dafydd H. Thomas, Emily T. Mirek,
Carmine F. Palermo, Stephen A. Sastra, Erin N. Dekleva, Tyler
Saunders, Claudia P. Becerra, Ian W. Tattersall, C. Benedikt
Westphalen, Jan Kitajewski, Maite G. Fernandez-Barrena, Martin E.
Fernandez-Zapico, Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, Kenneth P. Olive, Ben
Z. Stanger.
Cancer Cell, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2014.04.021

Functioning of aged brains and muscles in mice made younger: More progress with GDF 11, anti-aging protein

Date: May 4, 2014
Source: Harvard University
Summary: Scientists have shown that a protein they previously
demonstrated can make the failing hearts in aging mice appear more
like those of young health mice, similarly improves brain and skeletal
muscle function in aging mice. In two separate articles scientists
report that injections of a protein known as GDF11, which is found in
humans as well as mice, improved the exercise capability of mice
equivalent in age to that of about a 70-year-old human.

Infusion of young blood recharges brains of old mice
Date: May 5, 2014
Source: Stanford University Medical Center
Summary: Something -- or some things -- in the blood of young mice has
the ability to restore mental capabilities in old mice, a new study
has found. If the same goes for humans, it could spell a new paradigm
for recharging our aging brains, and it might mean new therapeutic
approaches for treating dementias such as Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Reference:

Saul A Villeda, Kristopher E Plambeck, Jinte Middeldorp, Joseph M
Castellano, Kira I Mosher, Jian Luo, Lucas K Smith, Gregor Bieri,
Karin Lin, Daniela Berdnik, Rafael Wabl, Joe Udeochu, Elizabeth G
Wheatley, Bende Zou, Danielle A Simmons, Xinmin S Xie, Frank M Longo,
Tony Wyss-Coray.
Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice.
 Nature Medicine,
2014; DOI: 10.1038/nm.3569

Brain may never fully recover from exposure to paint, glue, degreasers
Date: May 12, 2014
American Academy of Neurology (AAN)
Summary: People who are exposed to paint, glue or degreaser fumes at
work may experience memory and thinking problems in retirement,
decades after their exposure, according to a new study. Researchers
assessed the workers' lifetime exposure to chlorinated solvents,
petroleum solvents, and benzene, including the timing of last exposure
and lifetime dosage. Benzene is used to make plastics, rubber, dye,
detergents and other synthetic materials. Chlorinated solvents can be
found in dry cleaning solutions, engine cleaners, paint removers and
degreasers. Petroleum solvents are used in carpet glue, furniture
polishes, paint, paint thinner and varnish.

Journal Reference:

E. L. Sabbath, L.-A. Gutierrez, C. A. Okechukwu, A. Singh-Manoux, H.
Amieva, M. Goldberg, M. Zins, C. Berr. Time may not fully attenuate
solvent-associated cognitive deficits in highly exposed workers.
Neurology, 2014; 82 (19): 1716 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000413

NAP (Davuentide)
Novel protein fragments may protect against Alzheimer's
Date: May 13, 2014
Source: American Friends of Tel Aviv University
Summary: Alzheimer's research has centered on trying to understand the
protective or regenerative properties of brain cells as an avenue for
treating the widespread disease. Now a researcher has discovered novel
protein fragments that have proven protective properties for cognitive
functioning. Her findings have the potential to serve as a pipeline
for new drug candidates to treat the disease.

Herpes-loaded stem cells used to kill brain tumors
Date: May 16, 2014
Source: Harvard University
Summary: A potential solution for how to more effectively kill tumor
cells using cancer-killing viruses has been discovered by researchers.
The investigators report that trapping virus-loaded stem cells in a
gel and applying them to tumors significantly improved survival in
mice with glioblastoma multiform, the most common brain tumor in human
adults and also the most difficult to treat.

Journal Reference:

Matthias Duebgen, Jordi Martinez-Quintanilla, Kaoru Tamura, Shawn
Hingtgen, Navid Redjal, Hiroaki Wakimoto And Khalid Shah.
Stem Cells Loaded With Multimechanistic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Variants for Brain Tumor Therapy.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute, May
2014 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/dju090

Research explains action of drug that may slow aging, related disease
Date: May 20, 2014
Source: Oregon State University
Summary: A proven approach to slow the aging process is dietary
restriction, but new research helps explain the action of a drug that
appears to mimic that process -- rapamycin. The advance moves science
closer to a compound that might slow aging and reduce age-related
disease. The lead researcher said that this study "could provide a way
not only to increase lifespan but to address some age-related diseases
and improve general health."

Journal Reference:

Z. Yu, R. Wang, W. C. Fok, A. Coles, A. B. Salmon, V. I. Perez.
Rapamycin and Dietary Restriction Induce Metabolically Distinctive Changes in Mouse Liver.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A:
Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2014; DOI:

Compound reverses symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in mice
Date: May 20, 2014
Source: Saint Louis University Medical Center
Summary: Research in an animal model supports the potential
therapeutic value of an antisense compound to treat Alzheimer's
disease. The molecule also reduced inflammation in the part of the
brain responsible for learning and memory. The article is the second
mouse study that supports the potential therapeutic value of an
antisense compound in treating Alzheimer's disease in humans.
antisense oligonucleotide (OL-1)

Take notes by hand for better long-term comprehension

Date: April 24, 2014
Source: Association for Psychological Science
Summary: Dust off those Bic ballpoints and college-ruled notebooks:
research shows that taking notes by hand is better than taking notes
on a laptop for remembering conceptual information over the long term.
"Our new findings suggest that even when laptops are used as intended
-- and not for buying things on Amazon during class -- they may still
be harming academic performance," says a psychological scientist
involved in the study.

Journal Reference:

The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking.
P. A. Mueller, D. M. Oppenheimer.
Psychological Science, 2014; DOI: 10.1177/0956797614524581

Young Blood May Hold Key to Reversing Aging
...a protein called GDF11 was abundant in young mice and scarce in old ones.

Infusion of young blood recharges brains of old mice
Date: May 5, 2014
Source: Stanford University Medical Center
Summary: Something -- or some things -- in the blood of young mice has
the ability to restore mental capabilities in old mice, a new study
has found. If the same goes for humans, it could spell a new paradigm
for recharging our aging brains, and it might mean new therapeutic
approaches for treating dementias such as Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Reference:

Young blood reverses age-related impairments in cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in mice.
Saul A Villeda, Kristopher E Plambeck, Jinte Middeldorp, Joseph M
Castellano, Kira I Mosher, Jian Luo, Lucas K Smith, Gregor Bieri,
Karin Lin, Daniela Berdnik, Rafael Wabl, Joe Udeochu, Elizabeth G
Wheatley, Bende Zou, Danielle A Simmons, Xinmin S Xie, Frank M Longo,
Tony Wyss-Coray.
Nature Medicine, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nm.3569

Functioning of aged brains and muscles in mice made younger: More progress with GDF 11, anti-aging protein
Date: May 4, 2014
Source: Harvard University
Summary: Scientists have shown that a protein they previously
demonstrated can make the failing hearts in aging mice appear more
like those of young health mice, similarly improves brain and skeletal
muscle function in aging mice. In two separate articles scientists
report that injections of a protein known as GDF11, which is found in
humans as well as mice, improved the exercise capability of mice
equivalent in age to that of about a 70-year-old human.

Vitamin D deficiency, cognition appear to be linked in older adults

Date: April 15, 2014
Source: Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
A study that looks at Vitamin D deficiency and cognition relationship
in older adults adds to the existing literature on the subject. "This
study provides increasing evidence that suggests there is an
association between low vitamin D levels and cognitive decline over
time," said the lead author. "Although this study cannot establish a
direct cause and effect relationship, it would have a huge public
health implication if vitamin D supplementation could be shown to
improve cognitive performance over time because deficiency is so
common in the population."

Journal Reference:

Relationship Between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.
Valerie K. Wilson, Denise K. Houston, Laurel Kilpatrick, James Lovato,
Kristine Yaffe, Jane A. Cauley, Tamara B. Harris, Eleanor M.
Simonsick, Hilsa N. Ayonayon, Stephen B. Kritchevsky, Kaycee M. Sink.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2014; 62 (4): 636 DOI:

Obesity: Are lipids hard drugs for the brain?

Date: April 15, 2014
Source: CNRS (Délégation Paris Michel-Ange)
Why can we get up for a piece of chocolate, but never because we fancy
a carrot? Research has demonstrated part of the answer: triglycerides,
fatty substances from food, may act in our brains directly on the
reward circuit, the same circuit that is involved in drug addiction.
These results show a strong link in mice between fluctuations in
triglyceride concentration and brain reward development. Identifying
the action of nutritional lipids on motivation and the search for
pleasure in dietary intake will help us better understand the causes
of some compulsive behaviors and obesity.

Cancer drugs block dementia-linked brain inflammation, study finds

Date: April 16, 2014
Source: University of California - Irvine
A class of drugs developed to treat immune-related conditions and
cancer -- including one currently in clinical trials for glioblastoma
and other tumors -- eliminates neural inflammation associated with
dementia-linked diseases and brain injuries, according to researchers.
In their study, the researchers discovered that the drugs, which can
be delivered orally, eradicated microglia, the primary immune cells of
the brain. These cells exacerbate many neural diseases, including
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as brain injury.

Journal Reference:

Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor Signaling Is Necessary for
Microglia Viability, Unmasking a Microglia Progenitor Cell in the
Adult Brain.
Monica R.P. Elmore, Allison R. Najafi, Maya A. Koike, Nabil N. Dagher,
Elizabeth E. Spangenberg, Rachel A. Rice, Masashi Kitazawa, Bernice
Matusow, Hoa Nguyen, Brian L. West, Kim N. Green.
Neuron, 2014; 82 (2): 380 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.02.040

Fat metabolism in animals altered to prevent most common type of heart disease
Date: April 22, 2014
Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine
Working with mice and rabbits, scientists have found a way to block
abnormal cholesterol production, transport and breakdown, successfully
preventing the development of atherosclerosis, the main cause of heart
attacks and strokes and the number-one cause of death among humans.
The condition develops when fat builds inside blood vessels over time
and renders them stiff, narrowed and hardened, greatly reducing their
ability to feed oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle and the brain.

"The Johns Hopkins team used an existing human-made compound called
D-PDMP to block the synthesis of the GSL molecule, and by doing so,
prevented the development of heart disease in mice and rabbits fed a
high-fat, cholesterol-laden diet."

Journal Reference:

Inhibition of Glycosphingolipid Synthesis Ameliorates Atherosclerosis and Arterial Stiffness in Apo E-/- Mice and Rabbits Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.
S. Chatterjee, D. Bedja, S. Mishra, C. Amuzie, A. Avolio, D. Kass, D.
Berkowitz, M. Renehan.
Circulation, 2014; DOI: 10.1161/%u200BCIRCULATIONAHA.113.007559

Proposal: Managing most troubling symptoms of dementia, lessen use of drugs
Date: April 21, 2014
Source: University of Michigan Health System
A new approach to handling agitation, aggression and other unwanted
behaviors by people with dementia may help reduce the use of
antipsychotics and other psychiatric drugs in this population, and
make life easier for them and their caregivers. A panel of specialists
in senior mental health hope to spark better teamwork among those who
care for dementia patients at home, in residential facilities and in
hospitals and clinics.

Journal Reference:

Management of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia in Clinical Settings: Recommendations from a Multidisciplinary Expert Panel.
Helen C. Kales, Laura N. Gitlin, Constantine G. Lyketsos.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2014; 62 (4): 762 DOI:

Ginseng can treat, prevent influenza, RSV, researcher finds
Date: April 21, 2014
Source: Georgia State University
Summary:  Ginseng can help treat and prevent influenza and respiratory
syncytial virus, a respiratory virus that infects the lungs and
breathing passages, according to research findings. Seasonal influenza
is a serious respiratory disease that causes annual epidemics in
humans worldwide, resulting in about three to five million cases of
severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths, according to the
World Health Organization.

Journal Reference:

Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection.
Jong Lee, Hye Hwang, Eun-Ju Ko, Yu-Na Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Min-Chul
Kim, Sang-Moo Kang.
Nutrients, 2014; 6 (2): 517 DOI: 10.3390/nu6020517

Regular exercise can keep dementia at bay - even if it's in your
genes: Being active three times a week stops the brain from shrinking

Study found being active at least three times a week stops brain shrinking
Experts recommend swimming, jogging, cycling and even mundane chores
US researchers measured brain activity in pensioners over 18 months


PUBLISHED: 17:51 EST, 23 April 2014 | UPDATED: 07:45 EST, 24 April 2014

Physical activity keeps hippocampus healthy in people at risk for Alzheimer's disease

Date: April 23, 2014
Source: University of Maryland
Summary: Moderate physical activity may preserve the hippocampus --
the brain region responsible for memory and spatial orientation that
is attacked first in Alzheimer's disease, a study of older adults at
increased risk for Alzheimer's disease shows. It is the first evidence
that physical activity may protect against cognitive decline and the
onset of dementia symptoms in those who carry the genetic marker for

Journal Reference:

Physical activity reduces hippocampal atrophy in elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease.
J. Carson Smith, Kristy A. Nielson, John L. Woodard, Michael
Seidenberg, Sally Durgerian, Kathleen E. Hazlett, Christina M.
Figueroa, Cassandra C. Kandah, Christina D. Kay, Monica A. Matthews,
Stephen M. Rao.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2014; 6 DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00061

Taking a walk may lead to more creativity than sitting, study finds

Contact: Lisa Bowen
American Psychological Association

Free-flowing thought more likely while walking indoors or outdoors,research reveals

WASHINGTON -- When the task at hand requires some imagination, taking
a walk may lead to more creative thinking than sitting, according to
research published by the American Psychological Association.


Is Sitting For Long Hours At Work The New Smoking?

April 22, 2014 10:52 AM

Moderate exercise not only treats, but prevents depression
Date:October 28, 2013


Taking a walk 'makes your brain grow': Energetic stroll three times a week can increase size of organ's memory hub
By Fiona Macrae Science
Correspondent In Chicago
PUBLISHED: 19:51 EST, 17 February 2014 | UPDATED: 03:28 EST, 18 February 2014

Walking can lower risk of heart-related conditions as much as running
Date:April 4, 2013

High blood caffeine levels in older adults linked to avoidance of Alzheimer’s disease
Date:June 4, 2012

Iron is at core of Alzheimer's disease, study suggests
Date:August 20, 2013

CPAP therapy restores brain tissue in adults with sleep apnea, study finds
Date:June 9, 2010
Source:American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Summary:Obstructive sleep apnea patients had reductions of grey-matter
volume at baseline but showed significant grey-matter volume increase
after three months of CPAP therapy, according to new research.

Strawberries lower cholesterol, study suggests
Date:February 25, 2014
Source:Plataforma SINC
Summary:A team of volunteers ate half a kilo of strawberries a day for
a month to see whether it altered their blood parameters in any way.
At the end of this unusual treatment, their levels of bad cholesterol
and triglycerides were significantly reduced, according to the
analyses conducted by Italian and Spanish scientists. Several studies
had already demonstrated the antioxidant capacity of strawberries, but
now researchers conducted an analysis that revealed that these fruits
also help to reduce cholesterol.

Poor sleep quality linked to cognitive decline in older men
Date:March 31, 2014
Source:American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Summary:A link between poor sleep quality and the development of
cognitive decline over three to four years was found in a new study of
older men. Results show that higher levels of fragmented sleep and
lower sleep efficiency were associated with a 40 to 50 percent
increase in the odds of clinically significant decline in executive
function, which was similar in magnitude to the effect of a five-year
increase in age. In contrast, sleep duration was not related to
subsequent cognitive decline.

Chowing down on watermelon could lower blood pressure, study suggests
April 3, 2014
Florida State University
Watermelon could significantly reduce blood pressure in overweight
individuals both at rest and while under stress. "The pressure on the
aorta and on the heart decreased after consuming watermelon extract,"
the small study concludes.

Morning rays keep off pounds
April 2, 2014
Northwestern University
A surprising new strategy for managing your weight? Bright morning
light. People who had most of their daily exposure to bright light in
the morning had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than those
who had most of their light exposure later in the day, reports a new
study. The earlier light exposure occurred, the lower the BMI. The
influence of morning light on weight was independent of physical
activity, caloric intake, sleep timing, age or season.

Key chocolate ingredients could help prevent obesity, diabetes
April 2, 2014
American Chemical Society
Improved thinking. Decreased appetite. Lowered blood pressure. The
potential health benefits of dark chocolate keep piling up, and
scientists are now homing in on what ingredients in chocolate might
help prevent obesity, as well as type-2 diabetes. They found that one
particular type of antioxidant in cocoa prevented laboratory mice from
gaining excess weight and lowered their blood sugar levels.

Levels of sodium intake recommended by CDC associated with harmful
health outcomes, study finds
April 2, 2014
Oxford University Press USA
A new study finds evidence that the average daily sodium intake of
most Americans is actually associated with better health outcomes than
intake levels currently recommended by the CDC and major health
departments, which are now being viewed by many in the scientific
community as excessively and unrealistically low.

Coffee consumption reduces mortality risk from liver cirrhosis
April 2, 2014
Consuming two or more cups of coffee each day reduces the risk of
death from liver cirrhosis by 66%, specifically cirrhosis caused by
non-viral hepatitis, new research reveals. Findings show that tea,
fruit juice, and soft drink consumption are not linked to cirrhosis
mortality risk. As with previous studies, heavy alcohol use was found
to increase risk of death from cirrhosis.


Potential anticancer activity of myricetin in human T24 bladder cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.

Fang Sun, Xiang Yi Zheng, Jia Ye, Ting Ting Wu, Jian li Wang, Weilin Chen

Institute of Immunology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine,
Hangzhou, China.
Nutrition and Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.7). 04/2012; 64(4):599-606.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical, has potent
anticancer-promoting activity and contributes to the chemopreventive
potential of several foods. In this preliminary study, we evaluate the
chemopreventive potential of myricetin against

Outcome of stroke worse for people with infection

Date: April 15, 2014
Source: Manchester University
Infection is bad news for all of us - but it can be really serious to
people who have had a stroke. Evidence is mounting that infection
makes things much worse after a stroke. The researchers show that
rodents with pneumonia fared worse after having a stroke than those
without the bacterial infection. This study builds on previous
research demonstrating that an anti-inflammatory drug, called
'interleukin-1 receptor antagonist', could dramatically limit the
amount of brain damage in experimental stroke.
[how about UTI or spirochete infection?]


Experts Call for Research On Prevalence of Delayed Neurological Dysfunction After Head Injury
Apr. 5, 2013 —

New Light Shed On Traumatic Brain Injuries
Apr. 15, 2013 — Even a mild injury to the brain can have long lasting consequences, including increased risk of cognitive impairment later in life. While it is not yet known how brain injury increases risk for dementia, there are indications that chronic, long-lasting, inflammation in the brain may be important. A new paper by researchers at the University of Kentucky Sanders-Brown Center on Aging (SBCoA), appearing in the Journal of Neuroscience, offers the latest information concerning a "switch" that turns "on" and "off" inflammation in the brain after trauma

Mild Blast Injury Causes Molecular Changes in Brain Akin to Alzheimer
Apr. 24, 2013 — A multicenter study led by scientists at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine shows that mild traumatic brain injury after blast exposure produces inflammation, oxidative stress and gene activation patterns akin to disorders of memory processing such as Alzheimer's disease.

The Power of Cocoa Polyphenols Against Neurodegenerative Diseases
Apr. 12, 2013 — Epidemiological studies have indicated that dietary habits and antioxidants from diet can influence the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In the recent years, a number of papers have reported on neuroprotective effects of polyphenols in cell and animal models. However, the majority of these studies have focused only on the anti-oxidant properties of these compounds and less on the mechanism/s of action at cellular and molecular levels.

Bursts of Brain Activity May Protect Against Alzheimer's Disease
Apr. 18, 2013 — ...This represents a major advance in understanding that brain circuits regulate composition of amyloid-beta proteins, showing that the disease is not just driven by genetic mutations, but by physiological mechanisms as well. ...

No Evidence Drugs, Vitamins, Supplements Help Prevent Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults
Apr. 15, 2013 — ...They found no strong evidence for pharmacologic treatments such as cholinesterase inhibitors that were developed to improve the effectiveness of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger that assists memory, thought and judgment.

Nor was there strong evidence that herbal supplements such as gingko improved cognitive functions or vitamins and fatty acids such as vitamin B6 or omega-3 fatty acids... [ Note what was NOT studied:  The supplements included in Dale's List]

No Link Between Anesthesia, Dementia in Elderly
May 1, 2013 — Elderly patients who receive anesthesia are no more likely to develop long-term dementia or Alzheimer's disease than other seniors, according to new Mayo Clinic research. The study analyzed thousands of patients using the Rochester Epidemiology Project -- which allows researchers access to medical records of nearly all residents of Olmsted County, Minn. -- and found that receiving general anesthesia for procedures after age 45 is not a risk factor for developing dementia. The findings were published Wednesday, May 1, online in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

[Of course they would come to this conclusion...  Tobacco companies would come to the conclusion that smoking is harmless, and pharmaceutical comanies would find that all drugs they make are benign while those of their compentition are deadly.]

Neurodegenerative Disease Advance: Study Details How Brain Enzyme Interacts With Drug-Like Lead Compound for Huntington's
Apr. 10, 2013 —

...Professor Nigel Scrutton who led the study said: "UPF 648 works very well as an inhibitor of enzyme activity. However, in its current form it does not pass into the brain from the blood. The search is now on for related compounds that can both inhibit the enzyme and pass into the brain."

He continues: "Our research detailing the molecular structure of the enzyme now enables a search for new KMO inhibitors that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This provides real hope for developing drug therapies to target neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases."...

Potential Therapy for Human Prion Disease
Apr. 3, 2013 —...The two compounds are already marketed as the drugs tacrolimus and astemizole. Tacrolimus is an immune suppressant widely used in organ transplantation. Tacrolimus could prove problematic as an anti-prion drug, however, because of issues including possible neurotoxicity.

However, astemizole is an antihistamine that has potential for use as an anti-prion drug. While withdrawn voluntarily from the U.S. over-the-counter market in 1999 because of rare cardiac arrhythmias when used in high doses, it has been available in generic form in more than 30 countries and has a well-established safety profile. Astemizole not only crosses the blood-brain barrier, but works effectively at a relatively low concentration.

Accused of Complicity in Alzheimer's, Amyloid Proteins May Be Getting a Bad Rap
Apr. 3, 2013 —

Alzheimer's Discovery: Amyloid Beta Triggers Increased Levels of Protein That Appears to Cause Neuronal Dysfunction
Mar. 19, 2013 —

Feeling Hungry May Protect the Brain Against Alzheimer's Disease
Apr. 2, 2013 — The feeling of hunger itself may protect against Alzheimer's disease, according to study published today in the journal PLOS ONE. Interestingly, the results of this study in mice suggest that mild hunger pangs, and related hormonal pathways, may be as important to the much-discussed value of "caloric restriction" as actually eating less... 'synthetic ghrelin' (ghrelin agonist), a second that underwent caloric restriction (20 percent less food) ...

Neurodegenerative Diseases: Transmission Routes of Spreading Protein Particles
Mar. 27, 2013 — ...Now, a new laboratory study by scientists from Germany and the US shows that certain protein particles are indeed capable of multiplying and spreading from one cell to the next....

Carmustine Decreases Amyloid Beta Plaques
Mar. 26, 2013 — Long term treatment by carmustine, a chemical relative of mustard gas and already used to treat some types of brain cancer, can decrease the amount of amyloid ß and number of amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The research is published in Biomed Central's open access journal BMC Medicine.

May 10, 2013 ***********************

Rejuvenating Hormone Found to Reverse Symptoms of Heart Failure
May 9, 2013 — Heart failure is one of the most debilitating conditions linked to old age, and there are no specific therapies for the most common form of this condition in the elderly. A study published by Cell Press May 9th in the journal Cell reveals that a blood hormone known as growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) declines with age, and old mice injected with this hormone experience a reversal in signs of cardiac aging.

Could Eating Peppers Prevent Parkinson's? Dietary Nicotine May Hold Protective Key
May 9, 2013 — New research reveals that Solanaceae -- a flowering plant family with some species producing foods that are edible sources of nicotine -- may provide a protective effect against Parkinson's disease.
1.Susan Searles Nielsen, Gary M. Franklin, W.T. Longstreth Jr, Phillip D. Swanson and Harvey Checkoway. Nicotine from Edible Solanaceae and Risk of Parkinson Disease. Annals of Neurology, May 9, 2013 DOI: 10.1002/ana.23884
[ The story does not mention that Anatabine was studied. ]

Study: Using anticholinergics for as few as 60 days causes memory problems in older adults
INDIANAPOLIS -- Research from the Regenstrief Institute, the Indiana University Center for Aging Research and Wishard-Eskenazi Health on medications commonly taken by older adults has found that drugs with strong anticholinergic effects cause cognitive impairment when taken continuously for as few as 60 days. A similar impact can be seen with 90 days of continuous use when taking multiple drugs with weak anticholinergic effect.

May 14, 2013 *************

New Drug Reverses Memory Deficits and Slows Alzheimer's in Mice
May 13, 2013 — A drug developed by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, known as J147, reverses memory deficits and slows Alzheimer's disease in aged mice following short-term treatment.
..the Salk team used living neurons grown in laboratory dishes to test whether their new synthetic compounds, which are based upon natural products derived from plants,.. [ Which plant compounds???? Fisetin?  Myricetin?  Curcumin???]
...Prior and her colleagues say that several cellular processes known to be associated with Alzheimer's pathology are affected by J147, including an increase in a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which protects neurons from toxic insults, helps new neurons grow and connect with other brain cells, and is involved in memory formation. Postmortem studies show lower than normal levels of BDNF in the brains of people with Alzheimer's.

The neurotrophic compound J147 reverses cognitive impairment in aged Alzheimer's disease mice.
Marguerite Prior, Richard Dargusch, Jennifer L Ehren, Chandramouli Chiruta and Dave Schubert.
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 2013 (in press)

The neurotrophic compound J147 reverses cognitive impairment in aged Alzheimer's disease mice.
Prior M, Dargusch R, Ehren JL, Chiruta C, Schubert D.
Alzheimers Res Ther. 2013 May 14;5(3):25.
INTRODUCTION: Despite years of research, there are no disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a fatal, age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Screening for potential therapeutics in rodent models of AD has generally relied on testing compounds before pathology is present, thereby modeling disease prevention rather than disease modification. Furthermore, this approach to screening does not reflect the clinical presentation of AD patients which could explain the failure to translate compounds identified as beneficial in animal models to disease modifying compounds in clinical trials. Clearly a better approach to pre-clinical drug screening for AD is required.

METHODS: To more accurately reflect the clinical setting, we used an alternative screening strategy involving the treatment of AD mice at a stage in the disease when pathology is already advanced. Aged (20-month-old) transgenic AD mice (APP/swePS1[increment]E9) were fed an exceptionally potent, orally active, memory enhancing and neurotrophic molecule called J147. Cognitive behavioral assays, histology, ELISA and Western blotting were used to assay the effect of J147 on memory, amyloid metabolism and neuroprotective pathways. J147 was also investigated in a scopolamine-induced model of memory impairment in C57Bl/6J mice and compared to donepezil. Details on the pharmacology and safety of J147 are also included.

RESULTS: Data presented here demonstrate that J147 has the ability to rescue cognitive deficits when administered at a late stage in the disease. The ability of J147 to improve memory in aged AD mice is correlated with its induction of the neurotrophic factors NGF (nerve growth factor) and BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor) as well as several BDNF-responsive proteins which are important for learning and memory. The comparison between J147 and donepezil in the scopolamine model showed that while both compounds were comparable at rescuing short term memory, J147 was superior at rescuing spatial memory and a combination of the two worked best for contextual and cued memory.

CONCLUSION: J147 is an exciting new compound that is extremely potent, safe in animal studies and orally active. J147 is a potential AD therapeutic due to its ability to provide immediate cognition benefits, and it also has the potential to halt and perhaps reverse disease progression in symptomatic animals as demonstrated in these studies.


Science News...
Possible Reason for Cholesterol-Drug Side Effects Such as Memory Loss
May 10, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and physicians continue to document that some patients experience fuzzy thinking and memory loss while taking statins, a class of global top-selling cholesterol-lowering drugs.

Cancer Drug Prevents Build-Up of Toxic Brain Protein
May 10, 2013 — Researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center ...
"The doses used to treat CML are high enough that the drug pushes cells to chew up their own internal organelles, causing self-cannibalization and cell death," Moussa says. "We reasoned that small doses -- for these mice, an equivalent to one percent of the dose used in humans -- would turn on just enough autophagy in neurons that the cells would clear malfunctioning proteins, and nothing else."...They discovered two candidates -- nilotinib and bosutinib, which is also approved to treat CML...
[ NOTE:  Autophagy isn't necessarily destructive to a cell... it is the method a cell uses to repair itself.  See the Wikipedia entry for Autophagy:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autophagy  The sugar trehalose may promote autophagy... a little bit of repair may be beneficial, but too much is destructive? ]

May 20, 2013 ********************************************************

Sleep Apnea Linked to Alzheimer's
May 19, 2013 — A new study looking at sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging adds to the growing body of research linking the two... "Our study did not determine the direction of the causality,.."

[amyloid beta] Molecular Trigger for Alzheimer's Disease Identified
May 20, 2013 — Researchers have pinpointed a catalytic trigger for the onset of Alzheimer’s disease – when the fundamental structure of a protein molecule changes to cause a chain reaction that leads to the death of neurons in the brain...

“There are no disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s and dementia at the moment, only limited treatment for symptoms.” said Dr Tuomas Knowles, lead author of the study and long-time collaborator of Professor Dobson... [They always say this... but I don't think it's true.]
...Small and highly diffusible, these are the ‘toxic oligomers’ that careen dangerously around the brain cells, killing neurons and ultimately causing loss of memory and other symptoms of dementia...

May 24, 2013 ********************************************************

Cinnamon Compound Has Potential Ability to Prevent Alzheimer's
May 23, 2013
...cinnamaldehyde and epicatechin...

Interaction of Cinnamaldehyde and Epicatechin with Tau: Implications of Beneficial Effects in Modulating Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.
Roshni C. George, John Lew, Donald J. Graves.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2013 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-122113

Interaction of Cinnamaldehyde and Epicatechin with Tau: Implications of Beneficial Effects in Modulating Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.
George RC, Lew J, Graves DJ.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2013 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Source: Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California, CA, USA.

Abnormal modifications in tau such as hyperphosphorylation, oxidation, and glycation interfere with its interaction with microtubules leading to its dissociation and self-aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously we reported that an aqueous extract of cinnamon has the ability to inhibit tau aggregation in vitro and can even induce dissociation of tangles isolated from AD brain. In the present study, we carried out investigations with cinnamaldehyde (CA) and epicatechin (EC), two components of active cinnamon extract. We found that CA and the oxidized form of EC (ECox) inhibited tau aggregation in vitro and the activity was due to their interaction with the two cysteine residues in tau. Mass spectrometry of a synthetic peptide, SKCGS, representing the actual tau sequence, identified the thiol as reacting with CA and ECox. Use of a cysteine double mutant of tau showed the necessity of cysteine for aggregation inhibition by CA. The interaction of CA with tau cysteines was reversible and the presence of CA did not impair the biological function of tau in tubulin assembly in vitro. Further, these compounds protected tau from oxidation caused by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2, and prevented subsequent formation of high molecular weight species that are considered to stimulate tangle formation. Finally, we observed that EC can sequester highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxidation such as acrolein. Our results suggest that small molecules that form a reversible interaction with cysteines have the potential to protect tau from abnormal modifications.

[This is a very interesting example of an academic squabble leaving us wondering what are the motives?  The first group thinks they have found a remarkable side effect of the cancer drug bexarotene.  Their study showed that the drug would improve the cognitive abilities of genetically engineered "Alzheimer mice".  After the report was published, some physicians decided to try bexarotene on their patients.  They can use drugs tested and approved by the FDA for one purpose "off-label" to treat other conditions that the drug was not tested for.  The second group of researchers could not replicate the results of the reduction of amyloid beta plaques, but I don't read anything about not being able to reduce the improvement in cognitive abilities.  They seem mostly concerned with convincing physicians from using bexarotene "off-label"]

Drug Reverses Alzheimer's Disease Deficits in Mice
May 23, 2013
Dr. Koldamova and her colleagues were studying mice expressing human Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), the only established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, or APOE3, which is known not to increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease, when a Case Western Reserve University study was published last year stating that bexarotene improved memory and rapidly cleared amyloid plaques from the brains of Alzheimer's model mice expressing mouse Apolipoprotein E (APOE)... The Pitt Public Health researchers were able to verify that the drug does significantly improve cognitive deficits in mice expressing gene mutations linked to human Alzheimer's disease, but could not confirm the effect on amyloid plaques... ..."We believe these findings make a solid case for continued exploration of bexarotene as a therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease,"... "We did find a significant decrease in soluble oligomers,"...

ApoE-directed therapeutics rapidly clear ß-amyloid and reverse deficits in AD mouse models.
Cramer PE, Cirrito JR, Wesson DW, Lee CY, Karlo JC, Zinn AE, Casali BT, Restivo JL, Goebel WD, James MJ, Brunden KR, Wilson DA, Landreth GE.
Science. 2012 Mar 23;335(6075):1503-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1217697. Epub 2012 Feb 9.
Source: Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired clearance of ß-amyloid (Aß) from the brain, a process normally facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE expression is transcriptionally induced through the action of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and liver X receptors in coordination with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Oral administration of the RXR agonist bexarotene to a mouse model of AD resulted in enhanced clearance of soluble Aß within hours in an apoE-dependent manner. Aß plaque area was reduced more than 50% within just 72 hours. Furthermore, bexarotene stimulated the rapid reversal of cognitive, social, and olfactory deficits and improved neural circuit function. Thus, RXR activation stimulates physiological Aß clearance mechanisms, resulting in the rapid reversal of a broad range of Aß-induced deficits.

Comment in
Neurodegenerative disease: RXR agonist reverses Alzheimer's disease. [Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012]
Neurodegenerative disease: RXR agonist reverses Alzheimer's disease.Crunkhorn S. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012 Mar 30; 11(4):271. Epub 2012 Mar 30.
Medicine. Old drug, new hope for Alzheimer's disease. [Science. 2012]
Medicine. Old drug, new hope for Alzheimer's disease.Strittmatter WJ. Science. 2012 Mar 23; 335(6075):1447-8.
PMID:22323736[PubMed] PMCID:PMC3651582
Free article: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651582/

Multiple Research Teams Unable to Confirm High-Profile Alzheimer's Study
May 23, 2013
"We repeated the initial experiments -- a standard process in science. Combined results are really important in this field. None of us found anything like what they described in the 2012 paper."

Memory enhancement....

Mediterranean Diet Seems to Boost Aging Brain Power
May 20, 2013 — A Mediterranean diet with added extra virgin olive oil or mixed nuts seems to improve the brain power of older people better than advising them to follow a low-fat diet, indicates research published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.

NOTE: Need section on Niacinamide.  See also Autophagy page.
NOTE: Reduce text from sciencedaily references in "memory enhancemen" page
NOTE: Need a link to a Cinnamaldehyde section of the Cinnamon page, and on the Grand Index
NOTE: Cinnamon page, "Known sources" has a link to myricetin?


Changing Gut Bacteria Through Diet Affects Brain Function
May 28, 2013 — UCLA researchers now have the first evidence that bacteria ingested in food can affect brain function in humans. In an early proof-of-concept study of healthy women, they found that women who regularly consumed beneficial bacteria known as probiotics through yogurt showed altered brain function, both while in a resting state and in response to an emotion-recognition task.



Exposure to General Anaesthesia Could Increase the Risk of Dementia in Elderly by 35 Percent
June 1, 2013 — Exposure to general anaesthesia increases the risk of dementia in the elderly by 35%, says new research presented at Euroanaesthesia, the annual congress of the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). The research is by Dr Francois Sztark, INSERM and University of Bordeaux, France, and colleagues.



Diabetes Drug Shows Promise in Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease
June 7, 2013 — Researchers in Spain have found that a drug used to control Type II diabetes can help repair the spinal cords of mice suffering from the inherited disease adrenoleukodystrophy which, untreated, leads eventually to a paralysis, a vegetative state and death. They believe that their findings may be relevant to other neurodegenerative diseases. A Phase II trial will be starting shortly... "We also knew that the pathway involved in the mitochondrial loss could be treated by the use of the diabetes drug pioglitazone"... multiple sclerosis, and many others where impaired bioenergetics combined with oxidative stress and degeneration of axons are known to be involved. The latter category of disease includes Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's. "It is possible that our findings may be relevant to these conditions as well,"...

Pioglitazone halts axonal degeneration in a mouse model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.
Laia Morato´ , Jorge Galino, Montserrat Ruiz, Noel Ylagan Calingasan, Anatoly A. Starkov, Magali Dumont, Alba Naudi´, Juan Jose´ Marti´nez, Patrick Aubourg, Manuel Portero-Oti´n, Reinald Pamplona, Elena Galea, M. Flint Beal,3 Isidre Ferrer, Ste´phane Fourcade and Aurora Pujol.
Brain, 2013 DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt143

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioglitazone

Pioglitazone, Actos (USA, Canada, the UK and Germany), Glustin (Europe), Glizone and Pioz (India), Zactos (Mexico)

Pioglitazone is a prescription drug of the class thiazolidinedione (TZD) with hypoglycemic (antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic) action to treat diabetes. It is used to improve glucose control in adults over the age of 18 with type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone is marketed as trademarks Actos in the USA, Canada, the UK and Germany, Glustin in Europe, Glizone and Pioz in India by Zydus Cadila and USV Limited, respectively and Zactos in Mexico by Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Actos was the tenth-best selling drug in the U.S. in 2008, with sales exceeding $2.4 billion.[1] Its cardiovascular safety profile compares favorably with rosiglitazone (Avandia), which was withdrawn after concerns about an increased risk of cardiac events. However, pioglitazone has subsequently been found to be associated with bladder tumors and has been withdrawn in some countries.

[NOTE:  One would think that those treated with this drug for Type II diabetes would have a lower incidence of the neurodegenerative diseases if this indeed is effective.]


"Unintended Effects of Cardiovascular Drugs on the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease"

A Peptide to Protect Brain Function
June 13, 2013 — A structure called "the microtubule network" is a crucial part of our nervous system. It acts as a transportation system within nerve cells, carrying essential proteins and enabling cell-to-cell communications. But in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, ALS, and Parkinson's, this network breaks down, hindering motor abilities and cognitive function... a new peptide in her lab, called NAP or Davunetide, that has the capacity to both protect and restore microtubule function. The peptide is a compound derived from the protein ADNP, which regulates more than 400 genes and is essential for brain formation, memory, and behavior...



New Drug Reverses Loss of Brain Connections in Alzheimer's
June 17, 2013 — The first experimental drug to boost brain synapses lost in Alzheimer's disease has been developed by researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. The drug, called NitroMemantine, combines two FDA-approved medicines to stop the destructive cascade of changes in the brain that destroys the connections between neurons, leading to memory loss and cognitive decline.

Aß induces astrocytic glutamate release, extrasynaptic NMDA receptor activation, and synaptic loss.
Maria Talantova, Sara Sanz-Blasco, Xiaofei Zhang, Peng Xia, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Shu-ichi Okamoto, Gustavo Dziewczapolski, Tomohiro Nakamura, Gang Cao, Alexander E. Pratt, Yeon-Joo Kang, Shichun Tu, Elena Molokanova, Scott R. McKercher, Samuel Andrew Hires, Hagit Sason, David G. Stouffer, Matthew W. Buczynski, James P. Solomon, Sarah Michael, Evan T. Powers, Jeffery W. Kelly, Amanda Roberts, Gary Tong, Traci Fang-Newmeyer, James Parker, Emily A. Holland, Dongxian Zhang, Nobuki Nakanishi, H.-S. Vincent Chen, Herman Wolosker, Yuqiang Wang, Loren H. Parsons, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Eliezer Masliah, Stephen F. Heinemann, Juan C. Piña-Crespo, and Stuart A. Lipton
PNAS, June 17, 2013 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1306832110

Blocking Overactive Receptor in Alzheimer's Recovers Memory Loss and More, Mouse Study Suggests
June 17, 2013 — A new study shows that memory pathology in older mice with Alzheimer's disease can be reversed with treatment.

The researchers found an increased level of a receptor known as bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) in the brain of mice with AD, a receptor involved in inflammation. "By administering a molecule that selectively blocks the action of this receptor, we observed important improvements in both cognitive and cerebrovascular function," says Dr. Baptiste Lacoste, research fellow who conducted the study at The Neuro and now pursuing his training at Harvard Medical School in Boston. "Alzheimer's disease destroys nerve cells and also compromises the function of blood vessels in the brain. Not only were there improvements in learning and memory, but also marked recovery in blood flow and vascular reactivity, i.e. the ability of cerebral vessels to dilate or constrict when necessary." Proper functioning of blood vessels in the brain is vital to providing nutrients and oxygen to nerve cells, and vascular diseases represent important risk factors for developing AD at an advanced age.

"Another interesting result that has not been seen before in our mouse model is a reduction by over 50% of toxic amyloid-beta peptide," adds Dr. Hamel. "In Alzheimer's disease, protein fragments called amyloid-beta have a deleterious effect on the blood and nervous systems. Normally, these protein fragments are broken down and removed. In Alzheimer's disease, the protein fragments clump together -- a factor believed to contribute to neuronal and vascular dysfunction. We are not sure if these decreases contribute to the functional recovery, but we hope that our findings will aid in clarifying this issue and identifying new targets for therapeutic approaches."
[Are there substances found in foods (i.e. supplements) that also block this bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R)?]


Chemical That Makes Naked Mole Rats Cancer-Proof Discovered
June 19, 2013 — Two researchers at the University of Rochester have discovered the chemical that makes naked mole rats cancer-proof...  "There's indirect evidence that HMW-HA would work in people," said Seluanov. "It's used in anti-wrinkle injections and to relieve pain from arthritis in knee joints, without any adverse effects. Our hope is that it can also induce an anti-cancer response."...

How Underground Rodent Wards Off Cancer: Second Mole Rat Species Has Different Mechanism for Resisting Cancer
Nov. 5, 2012
...Gorbunova and Seluanov say they next want to find out exactly what triggers the secretion of interferon beta...

Stress Hormone Could Trigger Mechanism for the Onset of Alzheimer's
June 19, 2013 — A chemical hormone released in the body as a reaction to stress could be a key trigger of the mechanism for the late onset of Alzheimer's disease, according to a study by researchers at Temple University.

"Corticosteroid uses the 5-lipoxygenase as a mechanism to damage the synapse, which results in memory and learning impairment, both key symptoms for Alzheimer's," said Pratico. "So that is strong support for the hypothesis that if you block 5-lipoxygenase, you can probably block the negative effects of corticosteroid in the brain."
[Can a chronic infection either of the brain or in some remote location in the body (helicobacter, etc.) cause a "stress" reaction even if there is no environmental "stress"?]

Antioxidant Shows Promise in Parkinson's Disease
June 19, 2013 — Diapocynin, a synthetic molecule derived from a naturally occurring compound (apocynin), has been found to protect neurobehavioral function in mice with Parkinson's Disease symptoms by preventing deficits in motor coordination.

Virus Combination Effective Against Deadly Brain Tumor
June 20, 2013 — A combination of the myxoma virus and the immune suppressant rapamycin can kill glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and deadliest malignant brain tumor,

"leuko form" of methylene blue... see Tauopathies forum on Yahoo.
Source:  Cape Apothacary http://capedrugs.com

6/21/2013 ***********************************************

Concussion Patients Show Alzheimer's-Like Brain Abnormalities
June 18, 2013 — The distribution of white matter brain abnormalities in some patients after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) closely resembles that found in early Alzheimer's dementia, according to a new study published online in the journal Radiology.

New Alzheimer's Research Suggests Possible Cause: Interaction of Proteins in Brain
June 19, 2013 — For years, Alzheimer's researchers have focused on two proteins that accumulate in the brains of people with Alzheimer's and may contribute to the disease: plaques made up of the protein amyloid-beta, and tangles of another protein, called tau...

"So much Alzheimer's research has been done to look at amyloid-beta and tau," Reddy said. "But ours is the first paper to strongly demonstrate that yes, there is an amyloid-beta/phosphorylated tau interaction. And that interaction might be causing the synaptic damage and cognitive decline in persons with Alzheimer's disease."

6/25/2013 ***********************************************

Protein That Contributes to Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Identified
June 25, 2013 — Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) have demonstrated that a protein called caspase-2 is a key regulator of a signaling pathway that leads to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. The findings, made in a mouse model of Alzheimer's, suggest that inhibiting this protein could prevent the neuronal damage and subsequent cognitive decline associated with the disease.

7/3/2013 ***********************************************

New Way Discovered to Block Inflammation
July 1, 2013 — Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have discovered a mechanism that triggers chronic inflammation in Alzheimer's, atherosclerosisand type-2 diabetes. The results, published today in Nature Immunology, suggest a common biochemical thread to multiple diseases and point the way to a new class of therapies that could treat chronic inflammation in these non-infectious diseases without crippling the immune system. Alzheimer's, atherosclerosis and type-2 diabetes -- diseases associated with aging and inflammation -- affect more than 100 million Americans.

Promising Alzheimer's 'Drug' Halts Memory Loss
June 26, 2013 — A new class of experimental drug-like small molecules is showing great promise in targeting a brain enzyme to prevent early memory loss in Alzheimer's disease, according to Northwestern Medicine® research.

The target is a stress-related protein kinase, p38alpha MAPK.

"We think this protein kinase target is one of the key players in the early to mid-stage of several diseases of the central nervous system and cancer,"

Development of Novel In Vivo Chemical Probes to Address CNS Protein Kinase Involvement in Synaptic Dysfunction.
D. Martin Watterson, Valerie L. Grum-Tokars, Saktimayee M. Roy, James P. Schavocky, Brinda Desai Bradaric, Adam D. Bachstetter, Bin Xing, Edgardo Dimayuga, Faisal Saeed, Hong Zhang, Agnieszka Staniszewski, Jeffrey C. Pelletier, George Minasov, Wayne F. Anderson, Ottavio Arancio, Linda J. Van Eldik.
PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (6): e66226 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066226

A Second Amyloid May Play a Role in Alzheimer's Disease
June 27, 2013 — A second amyloid may play a role in Alzheimer's disease, UC Davis researchers find.
A protein secreted with insulin travels through the bloodstream and accumulates in the brains of individuals with type 2 diabetes and dementia, in the same manner as the amyloid beta (?ß) plaques that are associated with Alzheimer's disease...
Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide, is a hormone produced by the pancreas that circulates in the bloodstream with insulin and plays a critical role in glycemic regulation by slowing gastric emptying, promoting satiety and preventing post-prandial spikes in blood glucose levels.

Amylin deposition in the brain: A second amyloid in Alzheimer's disease?
Kaleena Jackson, Gustavo A. Barisone, Elva Diaz, Lee-way Jin, Charles DeCarli, Florin Despa.
Annals of Neurology, 2013; DOI: 10.1002/ana.23956

Discovery Sheds Light On Why Alzheimer's Drugs Rarely Help
July 1, 2013
UCLA scientists discovered that Aß has a vastly different organization in oligomers than in amyloid plaques

Building on research published eight years ago in the journal Chemistry and Biology, Kenneth S. Kosik, Harriman Professor in Neuroscience and co-director of the Neuroscience Research Institute (NRI) at UC Santa Barbara, and his team have now applied their findings to two distinct, well-known mouse models, demonstrating a new potential target in the fight against Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

...Treatments for hyperphosphorylated tau, one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease, do not exist...

...the possibility that a small class of molecules called diaminothiazoles can act as inhibitors of kinase enzymes that phosphorylate tau. Kosik's team studied the toxicity and immunoreactivity of several diaminothiazoles that targeted two key kinases, CDK5/p25 and GSK3ß, in two Alzheimer's disease mouse models. The investigators found that the compounds can efficiently inhibit the enzymes with hardly any toxic effects in the therapeutic dose range.

[Donald Graves, the man researching cinnamon proanthrocyanidins and cinnameldahyde works at UC Santa Barbara.  Don't these people talk?]

Green Tea and Red Wine Extracts Interrupt Alzheimer's Disease Pathway in Cells
Feb. 5, 2013 — Natural chemicals found in green tea and red wine may disrupt a key step of the Alzheimer's disease pathway, according to new research from the University of Leeds.

Lightning may affect headache, migraines
UPI 1/28/2013 12:53:59 AM
CINCINNATI, Jan. 27 Dr. Vincent Martin-- professor in the division of general internal medicine and University of Cincinnati Health physician -- and his son, Geoffrey Martin ...The study published in the journal Cephalalgia, found new-onset headache and migraine increased by 24 percent and 23 percent in participants when lightning occurred...

Prion protein-mediated toxicity of amyloid-β oligomers requires lipid rafts and the transmembrane LRP1.
Rushworth JV, Griffiths HH, Watt NT, Hooper NM.
J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Source: University of Leeds, United Kingdom.

Soluble oligomers of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide cause neurotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and memory impairments which underlie Alzheimers disease (AD). The cellular prion protein (PrPC) was recently identified as a high-affinity neuronal receptor for Aβ oligomers. We report that fibrillar Aβ oligomers recognised by the OC antibody, which have been shown to correlate with the onset and severity of AD, bind preferentially to cells and neurons expressing PrPC. The binding of Aβ oligomers to cell surface PrPC, as well as their downstream activation of Fyn kinase, was dependent on the integrity of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In SH-SY5Y cells, fluorescence microscopy and co-localisation with sub-cellular markers revealed that the Aβ oligomers co-internalised with PrPC, accumulated in endosomes and subsequently trafficked to lysosomes. The cell surface binding, internalisation and downstream toxicity of Aβ oligomers was dependent on the transmembrane low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1). The binding of Aβ oligomers to cell surface PrPC impaired its ability to inhibit the activity of the β-secretase BACE1 which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce Aβ. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and the red wine extract resveratrol both re-modelled the fibrillar conformation of Aβ oligomers. The resulting non-fibrillar oligomers displayed significantly reduced binding to PrPC-expressing cells and were no longer cytotoxic. These data indicate that soluble, fibrillar Aβ oligomers bind to PrPC in a conformation-dependent manner and require the integrity of lipid rafts and the transmembrane LRP1 for their cytotoxicity, thus revealing potential targets to alleviate the neurotoxic properties of Aβ oligomers in AD.
PMID: 23386614 [PubMed] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23386614

Vitamin D, Omega-3 May Help Clear Amyloid Plaques Found in Alzheimer's
Feb. 5, 2013 — A team of academic researchers has pinpointed how vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids may enhance the immune system's ability to clear the brain of amyloid plaques, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease...

1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Resolvin D1 Retune the Balance between Amyloid-β Phagocytosis and Inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.
Mizwicki MT, Liu G, Fiala M, Magpantay L, Sayre J, Siani A, Mahanian M, Weitzman R, Hayden EY, Rosenthal MJ, Nemere I, Ringman J, Teplow DB.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2013 Jan 1;34(1):155-70. doi: 10.3233/JAD-121735.

Source: Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

As immune defects in amyloid-β (Aβ) phagocytosis and degradation underlie Aβ deposition and inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, better understanding of the relation between Aβ phagocytosis and inflammation could lead to promising preventive strategies. We tested two immune modulators in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of AD patients and controls: 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25D3) and resolvin D1 (RvD1). Both 1,25D3 and RvD1 improved phagocytosis of FAM-Aβ by AD macrophages and inhibited fibrillar Aβ-induced apoptosis. The action of 1,25D3 depended on the nuclear vitamin D and the protein disulfide isomerase A3 receptors, whereas RvD1 required the chemokine receptor, GPR32. The activities of 1,25D3 and RvD1 commonly required intracellular calcium, MEK1/2, PKA, and PI3K signaling; however, the effect of RvD1 was more sensitive to pertussis toxin. In this case study, the AD patients: a) showed significant transcriptional up regulation of IL1RN, ITGB2, and NFκB; and b) revealed two distinct groups when compared to controls: group 1 decreased and group 2 increased transcription of TLRs, IL-1, IL1R1 and chemokines. In the PBMCs/macrophages of both groups, soluble Aβ (sAβ) increased the transcription/secretion of cytokines (e.g., IL1 and IL6) and chemokines (e.g., CCLs and CXCLs) and 1,25D3/RvD1 reversed most of the sAβ effects. However, they both further increased the expression of IL1 in the group 1, sβ-treated cells. We conclude that in vitro, 1,25D3 and RvD1 rebalance inflammation to promote Aβ phagocytosis, and suggest that low vitamin D3 and docosahexaenoic acid intake and/or poor anabolic production of 1,25D3/RvD1 in PBMCs could contribute to AD onset/pathology.
PMID: 23186989 [PubMed] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23186989

Study Confirms No Transmission of Alzheimer's Proteins Between Humans
Feb. 4, 2013 — Mounting evidence demonstrates that the pathological proteins linked to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders are capable of spreading from cell-to-cell within the brains of affected individuals and thereby "spread" disease from one interconnected brain region to another. A new study found no evidence to support concerns that these abnormal disease proteins are "infectious" or transmitted from animals to humans or from one person to another...

Chemical Reaction Keeps Stroke-Damaged Brain from Repairing Itself
Feb. 4, 2013 — Nitric oxide, a gaseous molecule produced in the brain, can damage neurons. When the brain produces too much nitric oxide, it contributes to the severity and progression of stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

Oxygen Chamber Can Boost Brain Repair Years After Stroke or Trauma
Jan. 23, 2013 — Stroke, traumatic injury, and metabolic disorder are major causes of brain damage and permanent disabilities, including motor dysfunction, psychological disorders, memory loss, and more. Current therapy and rehab programs aim to help patients heal, but they often have limited success.

Type II Diabetes and Alzheimer's Connection
Feb. 1, 2013 — A research team in Israel has devised a novel approach to identifying the molecular basis for designing a drug that might one day decrease the risk diabetes patients face of developing Alzheimer's disease.


    Ginkgo PMC2254622

Ginkgolides protect against amyloid-beta1-42-mediated synapse damage in vitro.
Bate C, Tayebi M, Williams A.
Mol Neurodegener. 2008 Jan 7;3:1.
Source: Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Herts, AL9 7TA, UK. cbate@rvc.ac.uk.
PMID: 18179689 [PubMed]
PMCID: PMC2254622
Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2254622/?tool=pubmed


[from the J Alz.com link above…]
Pages 15-27


Accumulated Amyloid-β Peptide and Hyperphosphorylated Tau Protein: Relationship and Links in Alzheimer’s Disease
Han-chang Huang, Zhao-feng Jiang
Abstract: The neuropathology associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of extracellularly neuritic plaques, intracellularly neurofibrillary tangles and the loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. The neuritic plaque is composed of a core of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) while the neurofibrillary tangles contain phosphorylated tau protein, and, as such, both Aβ and tau are important molecules associated with AD. In healthy human bodies, clearance mechanisms for Aβ are available; yet if clearance fails, Aβ accumulates, increasing the risk of neurotoxicity in the brain. Tau, one of the main microtubule-associated proteins, will be hyperphosphorylated and lose the ability to bind microtubules when the homeostasis of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is disturbed in neurons. Accumulated Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau are thought to be coexistent. Research on the pathological changes in AD indicates that accumulated Aβ in vivo may initiate the hyperphosphorylation of tau. Also, the signal transduction pathways of tau hyperphosphorylation may be related to accumulated Aβ. In this review, we will discuss how Aβ accumulates, how tau protein is hyperphosphorylated, and how accumulated Aβ initiates hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in AD.


Epo-D About a year ago in the Alzheimer's Research Forum reported:

"In a study performed on three-month-old mice with tauopathy, one of these compounds, epothilone D, when given at the relatively low dose of 1 mg/kg body weight for three months, decreased axon degeneration and improved cognition in treated animals (see Brunden et al., 2010). [ NEED LINK ]

This month, in the Journal of Neuroscience, Brunden and his colleagues report positive results in older tauopathy mice using 1/30th to 1/100th of the dose used with cancer patients. Here is the website for the original press release http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2012/03/alzheimer/ This drug is now in human trials with Alzheimer's patients that ends in 2014.

Methylene Blue/2nd gen Rember. TauRx.com's website states: "…the clinical tolerability profile of LMTX, one of TauRx's second generation TAIs, is currently being investigated clinically in trials conducted under an open US IND. TauRx is now preparing to advance LMTX into pivotal international phase 3 trials in mild and moderate AD and related neurodegenerative diseases." [ NEED TO FIND LINK ]

In the meantime, two OTC low toxicity agents with established neuroprotective and neuro-repair properties merit review: bio-available curcumin (Longvida) and a new product that comes from research done at the Salk Institute, fisetin (Swanson). Both are strong anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories that protect and help neurons repair damage from tauopathy.

San Francisco: Tau—Time to Shine as Therapeutic Target?
17 May 2011. At the “Tau and Tauopathies: Pathogenic Mechanisms” workshop held 28-30 March 2011 at the Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease (GIND) in San Francisco... The researchers found that tau pathology correlated with increased serum IL-1β in the transgenic mice, and wondered whether blocking signals through this inflammatory cytokine could possibly help... epothilone D—a brain-penetrant, microtubule-stabilizing compound that slowed axon degeneration and improved cognition... hyperphosphorylated tau... “If you express c-Abl in the forebrain, you get tau phosphorylation, cell death, and gliosis accompanying the cell loss,”... The results are reminiscent of the cognitive recovery seen in tangle-bearing Tg4510 mice after tau transgene inhibition with doxycycline (ARF related news story on Santacruz et al., 2005), Cole wrote in an e-mail to ARF. The data “support tau oligomers as a target and curcumin as a pleiotropic drug capable of targeting pure tauopathy with late intervention,” he noted. Investigators at Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre in Mumbai, India, are recruiting AD patients for a Phase 2 trial of a highly absorbed, lipophilic curcumin formulation. Manufactured as a food supplement called LongVida by Verdure Sciences... eight-week treatment with the autophagy-promoting compound trehalose cleared tau aggregates and improved behavior in tauopathy mouse models with primarily motor...

This excerpt is from a 2010 case description (LaBuzetta, et.al. 2010):

"Signs and symptoms of hyperammonemia are usually neurological in nature and range from mild cognitive and psychomotor changes to impaired intellectual functioning, personality changes, altered levels of consciousness, and neuromuscular dysfunction. At high enough concentrations, coma or death can be observed."


Human Cytomegalovirus
Essential hypertension:

Virus can cause high blood pressure

BEIJING: High blood pressure could be caused by a common virus, according to a study carried out by a team of Chinese doctors which has possible implications for millions of people around the world.

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects most adults but is repressed by the body’s immune system and rarely causes any symptoms.

But a team from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital’s cardiology centre has found the first evidence of a link between HCMV and essential hypertension, according to a report published on the website of the US medical journal Circulation.

Virus can cause high blood pressure: Chinese study
Agence France-Presse
Posted at 08/15/2011

Virus can cause high blood pressure: Chinese study
Relaxnews – Wed, Aug 17, 2011

Virus can cause high blood pressure: Chinese study
AFP NewsBy Philip Lim | AFP News – Mon, Aug 15, 2011

Treatment With Vitamin C Dissolves Toxic Protein Aggregates in Alzheimer's Disease
ScienceDaily (Aug. 18, 2011)
 — Researchers at Lund University have discovered a new function for vitamin C. Treatment with vitamin C can dissolve the toxic protein aggregates that build up in the brain in Alzheimer's disease...

What form of vitamin C?  How much?  Is it practical for someone to take orally?

Fish Oil's Impact On Cognition and Brain Structure Identified in New Study
ScienceDaily (Aug. 17, 2011)
 — Researchers at Rhode Island Hospital's Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center have found positive associations between fish oil supplements and cognitive functioning as well as differences in brain structure between users and non-users of fish oil supplements. The findings suggest possible benefits of fish oil supplements on brain health and aging...

Exercise May Help Prevent Brain Damage Caused by Alzheimer's Disease
ScienceDaily (Aug. 15, 2011)
 — Regular exercise could help prevent brain damage associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, according to research published this month in Elsevier's journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity...

Moderate Drinking May Protect Against Alzheimer's and Cognitive Impairment, Study Suggests
ScienceDaily (Aug. 15, 2011)
 — Moderate social drinking may significantly reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment, suggests an analysis of 143 studies by Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine researchers...

Red wine and resveratrol?

Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria.

Judith Miklossy

Correspondence: Judith Miklossy judithmiklossy@bluewin.ch
Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011, 8:90 doi:10.1186/1742-2094-8-90

Published: 4 August 2011

Abstract (provisional)

It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in late neurosyphilis.

Recently it has been suggested that various types of spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Here, we review all data available in the literature on the detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established criteria of Koch and Hill.

The results show a statistically significant association between spirochetes and AD (P = 1.5 x 10-17, OR = 20, 95% CI = 8-60, N = 247).

When neutral techniques recognizing all types of spirochetes were used, or the highly prevalent periodontal pathogen Treponemas were analyzed, spirochetes were observed in the brain in more than 90% of AD cases.

Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the brain in 25.3% of AD cases analyzed and was 13 times more frequent in AD compared to controls.

Periodontal pathogen Treponemas (T. pectinovorum, T. amylovorum, T. lecithinolyticum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. socranskii) and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected using species specific PCR and antibodies.

Importantly, co-infection with several spirochetes occurs in AD.

The pathological and biological hallmarks of AD were reproduced in vitro.

The analysis of reviewed data following Koch's and Hill's postulates shows a probable causal relationship between neurospirochetosis and AD.

Persisting inflammation and amyloid deposition initiated and sustained by chronic spirochetal infection form together with the various hypotheses suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD a comprehensive entity.

As suggested by Hill, once the probability of a causal relationship is established prompt action is needed.

Support and attention should be given to this field of AD research.

Spirochetal infection occurs years or decades before the manifestation of dementia.

As adequate antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies are available, as in syphilis, one might prevent and eradicate dementia.



Various types of spirochetes, including B. burgdorferi, and six periodontal pathogen spirochetes ((T. socranskii, T. pectinovorum, T. denticola, T. medium, T. amylovorum and T. maltophilum) were detected in the brains of AD patients.

The pathological and biological hallmarks of AD, including increased AβPP level, Aβ deposition and tau phosphorylation were induced by spirochetes in vitro.

The statistical analysis showed a significant association between spirochetes and AD. The strongly significant association, the high risk factor and the analysis of data following Koch’s and Hill’s criteria, are indicative of a causal relationship between neurospirochetoses and AD.

Spirochetes are able to escape destruction by the host immune reactions and establish chronic infection and sustained inflammation.

In vivo studies with long exposure times will be necessary to efficiently study the sequence of events and the cellular mechanisms involved in spirochete induced AD-type host reactions and Aβ-plaque, “tangle” and “granulovacuolar” formation.

The characterization of all types of spirochetes and co-infecting bacteria and viruses is needed, in order to develop serological tests for the early detection of infection.

The pathological process is thought to begin long before the diagnosis of dementia is made therefore, an appropriate targeted treatment should start early in order to prevent dementia.

Persisting spirochetal infection and their persisting toxic components can initiate and sustain chronic inflammatory processes through the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system involving various signaling pathways.

In the affected brain the pathogens and their toxic components can be observed, along with host immunological responses.

The response itself is characteristic of chronic inflammatory processes associated with the site of tissue damage.

The outcome of infection is determined by the genetic predisposition of the patient, by the virulence and biology of the infecting agent
and by various environmental factors, such as exercise, stress and nutrition.

The accumulated knowledge, the various views, and hypotheses proposed to explain the pathogenesis of AD form together a comprehensive entity when observed in the light of a persisting chronic inflammation and amyloid deposition initiated and sustained by chronic spirochetal infection.

As suggested by Hill, once the probability of a causal relationship is established prompt action is needed. Similarly to syphilis, one may prevent and eradicate dementia in AD.

The impact on healthcare costs and on the suffering of the patients would be substantial.
J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 4;8(1):90. [Epub ahead of print]
Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria.
Miklossy J.

ABSTRACT: It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in late neurosyphilis. Recently it has been suggested that various types of spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review all data available in the literature on the detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established criteria of Koch and Hill. The results show a statistically significant association between spirochetes and AD (P = 1.5 x 10-17, OR = 20, 95% CI = 8-60, N = 247). When neutral techniques recognizing all types of spirochetes were used, or the highly prevalent periodontal pathogen Treponemas were analyzed, spirochetes were observed in the brain in more than 90% of AD cases. Borrelia burgdorferi was detected in the brain in 25.3% of AD cases analyzed and was 13 times more frequent in AD compared to controls. Periodontal pathogen Treponemas (T. pectinovorum, T. amylovorum, T. lecithinolyticum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. socranskii) and Borrelia burgdorferi were detected using species specific PCR and antibodies. Importantly, co-infection with several spirochetes occurs in AD. The pathological and biological hallmarks of AD were reproduced in vitro. The analysis of reviewed data following Koch's and Hill's postulates shows a probable causal relationship between neurospirochetosis and AD. Persisting inflammation and amyloid deposition initiated and sustained by chronic spirochetal infection form together with the various hypotheses suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD a comprehensive entity. As suggested by Hill, once the probability of a causal relationship is established prompt action is needed. Support and attention should be given to this field of AD research. Spirochetal infection occurs years or decades before the manifestation of dementia. As adequate antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies are available, as in syphilis, one might prevent and eradicate dementia.

PMID: 21816039 [PubMed]

Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly
doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000325581.26991.f2 Neurology September 9, 2008 vol. 71 no. 11 826-832
Conclusion: Low vitamin B12 status should be further investigated as a modifiable cause of brain atrophy and of likely subsequent cognitive impairment in the elderly.

Vitamin B clue to dementia
Thursday September 9 2010
NHS News (UK)
“Vitamin B tablets could slow and even halt the devastating march of Alzheimer's disease,” The Daily Telegraph reported. According to the newspaper, large daily doses of vitamin B can halve the rate of brain shrinkage, a process that can precede Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.

AD and dental work

Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation
First published July 27, 2011, doi: 10.3945/​ajcn.110.003483 Am J Clin Nutr September 2011 ajcn.003483

Seeing the Data with New Eyes
The data suggest that it is time to redefine the clinical diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration
The UCSF Memory and Aging Center

Tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | AOP, published online 8 August 2007; doi:10.1038/nrn2194

SARASOTA - A blood-pressure drug found by the Roskamp Institute to show promise for arresting Alzheimer's disease has been approved for a five-year, $8.4 million Phase III human trial in Europe.

A Phase III clinical trial, which comes after studies on safety in human patients, is usually the last stop on a drug's long journey to market. The few medicines available for Alzheimer's merely address symptoms that result from this progressive brain disease. Just a handful that target suspected causes — like the Roskamp drug, Nilvadipine — have made it as far as Phase III, required for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.



April 23, 2010

Reduction of β-amyloid pathology by celastrol in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

Filed under: alzheimer — Tags: Alzheimers disease, amyloid, Celastrol — admin @ 2:59 pm

Daniel Paris, Nowell J Ganey, Vincent Laporte, Nikunj S Patel, David Beaulieu-Abdelahad, Corbin Bachmeier, Amelia March, Ghania Ait-Ghezala and Michael J Mullan

The Roskamp Institute, 2040 Whitfield Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34243, USA

Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010, 7:17doi:10.1186/1742-2094-7-17

Published: 8 March 2010



Aβ deposits represent a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Both soluble and insoluble Aβ species are considered to be responsible for initiating the pathological cascade that eventually leads to AD. Therefore, the identification of therapeutic approaches that can lower Aβ production or accumulation remains a priority. NFκB has been shown to regulate BACE-1 expression level, the rate limiting enzyme responsible for the production of Aβ. We therefore explored whether the known NFκB inhibitor celastrol could represent a suitable compound for decreasing Aβ production and accumulation in vivo.


The effect of celastrol on amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, Aβ production and NFκB activation was investigated by western blotting and ELISAs using a cell line overexpressing APP. The impact of celastrol on brain Aβ accumulation was tested in a transgenic mouse model of AD overexpressing the human APP695sw mutation and the presenilin-1 mutation M146L (Tg PS1/APPsw) by immunostaining and ELISAs. An acute treatment with celastrol was investigated by administering celastrol intraperitoneally at a dosage of 1 mg/Kg in 35 week-old Tg PS1/APPsw for 4 consecutive days. In addition, a chronic treatment (32 days) with celastrol was tested using a matrix-driven delivery pellet system implanted subcutaneously in 5 month-old Tg PS1/APPsw to ensure a continuous daily release of 2.5 mg/Kg of celastrol.


In vitro, celastrol dose dependently prevented NFκB activation and inhibited BACE-1 expression. Celastrol potently inhibited Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 production by reducing the β-cleavage of APP, leading to decreased levels of APP-CTFβ and APPsβ. In vivo, celastrol appeared to reduce the levels of both soluble and insoluble Aβ1-38, Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. In addition, a reduction in Aβ plaque burden and microglial activation was observed in the brains of Tg PS1/APPsw following a chronic administration of celastrol.


Overall our data suggest that celastrol is a potent Aβ lowering compound that acts as an indirect BACE-1 inhibitor possibly by regulating BACE-1 expression level via an NFκB dependent mechanism. Additional work is required to determine whether chronic administration of celastrol can be safely achieved with cognitive benefits in a transgenic mouse model of AD.


Has a Tobacco Company Stumbled on an Alzheimer’s Cure?

Nicotene-based compound at the heart of clinical studies

Mar 1, 2011, 10:33 am EDT   |   By Jeff Reeves, Editor, InvestorPlace.com

Tobacco stock Star Scientific (NASDAQ: CIGX) is a company that focuses on smokeless tobacco products. But if Star Scientific has its way, the public could have a very different perception of tobacco — namely, as the plant that cured Alzheimer’s. That could mean big things for tobacco, and even bigger things for Star Scientific stock.


Roskamp Institute Obtains IRB Approval for Multi-Site Human Clinical Trial with Rock Creek Pharmaceutical RCP-006 Compound

on February 28, 2011

GLEN ALLEN, Va., Feb. 28, 2011 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ –


Role of Anatabine (RCP006 from Rock Creek Pharmaceuticals) as an anti-inflammatory agent


Orally administrated cinnamon extract reduces β-amyloid oligomerization and corrects cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease animal models.

Frydman-Marom A, Levin A, Farfara D, Benromano T, Scherzer-Attali R, Peled S, Vassar R, Segal D, Gazit E, Frenkel D, Ovadia M.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

PLoS One. 2011 Jan 28;6(1):e16564.


An increasing body of evidence indicates that accumulation of soluble oligomeric assemblies of β-amyloid polypeptide (Aβ) play a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Specifically, 56 kDa oligomeric species were shown to be correlated with impaired cognitive function in AD model mice. Several reports have documented the inhibition of Aβ plaque formation by compounds from natural sources. Yet, evidence for the ability of common edible elements to modulate Aβ oligomerization remains an unmet challenge. Here we identify a natural substance, based on cinnamon extract (CEppt), which markedly inhibits the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers and prevents the toxicity of Aβ on neuronal PC12 cells. When administered to an AD fly model, CEppt rectified their reduced longevity, fully recovered their locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain. Furthermore, oral administration of CEppt to an aggressive AD transgenic mice model led to marked decrease in 56 kDa Aβ oligomers, reduction of plaques and improvement in cognitive behavior. Our results present a novel prophylactic approach for inhibition of toxic oligomeric Aβ species formation in AD through the utilization of a compound that is currently in use in human diet.

PMID: 21305046 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3030596
Full article: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0016564

Alzheimer's Risk Gene Disrupts Brain's Wiring 50 Years Before Disease Hits

ScienceDaily (May 16, 2011) — What if you were told you carried a gene that increases your risk for Alzheimer's disease? And what if you were told this gene starts to do its damage not when you're old but when you're young?...

Naturally Occurring Plant Alkaloids Could Slow Down Alzheimer's Disease, Study Suggests

ScienceDaily (May 27, 2011) — A family of naturally occurring plant compounds could help prevent or delay memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen).  Beta-carboline alkaloids could potentially be used in therapeutic drugs to stop, or at least slow down, the progressively debilitating effects of Alzheimer's, according to the study published recently in the scientific journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) One....

Tobacco-Derived Compound Prevents Memory Loss in Alzheimer's Disease Mice

ScienceDaily (Apr. 28, 2011) — Cotinine, a compound derived from tobacco, reduced plaques associated with dementia and prevented memory loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, a study led by researchers at Bay Pines VA Healthcare System and the University of South Florida found... Some epidemiological studies showed that people who smoke tend to have lower incidences of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Studies have widely attributed this apparently beneficial effect to nicotine, which has been reported to improve memory and reduce Alzheimer's-like plaques in mice. However, nicotine's harmful cardiovascular effects and addictive properties make the compound a less than ideal drug candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

The Bay Pines VA/USF team decided to look at the effects of cotinine, the major byproduct of nicotine metabolism, in Alzheimer's disease mice. Cotinine is nontoxic and longer lasting than nicotine. Furthermore, its safety has already been demonstrated in human trials evaluating cotinine's potential to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms...

Here's the press release dated today 4-27-2011:

Tobacco-derived compound prevents memory loss in Alzheimer's disease mice

Tampa, FL (For immediate release) -- Cotinine, a compound derived from tobacco, reduced plaques associated with dementia and prevented memory loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, a study led by researchers at Bay Pines VA Healthcare System and the University of South Florida found.

The findings are reported online in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease in advance of print publication...

More here: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-04/uosf-tcp042711.php

Roskamp Institute to Begin Human Alzheimer's Clinical Trials With a Natural Compound in Tobacco
Oct 7, 2010


Also look into "Anatabloc" from Star Scientific.


Celiac disease

MRI May Predict Which Adults Will Develop Alzheimer's

ScienceDaily (Apr. 6, 2011) — Using MRI, researchers may be able to predict which adults with mild cognitive impairment are more likely to progress to Alzheimer's disease, according to the results of a study published online and in the June issue of Radiology...

Compound Effectively Halts Progression of Multiple Sclerosis in Animal Model

ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2011) — Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have developed the first of a new class of highly selective compounds that effectively suppresses the severity of multiple sclerosis in animal models. The new compound could provide new and potentially more effective therapeutic approaches to multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases that affect patients worldwide...

Progression of Smell Loss Offers Clues to the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

ScienceDaily (Apr. 6, 2011) — Loss of smell is a characteristic early symptom among people with Alzheimer's disease, but the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and the progression of the disease is still relatively unknown... Removing one olfactory bulb lowered the amount of Aβ found 6 months later on that side of the brain by more than 50 percent, even in regions that receive no direct olfactory bulb input. This supports a role for early-life olfactory bulb output in the spread of Aβ throughout the brain...


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Updated: August 27, 2011
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