"Give with a free hand, but give only your own."
 -- J.R.R. Tolkien The Children of Hurin
- Pyruvate -

General Information:

Wikipedia entry:
Dr. Ray Shahelien entry: 



Also see ALA

Wikipedia entries:

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is an organic acid. It is also a ketone, as well as being the simplest alpha-keto acid. The carboxylate (COOH) ion (anion) of pyruvic acid, CH3COCOO-, is known as pyruvate, and is a key intersection in several metabolic pathways. It can be made from glucose through glycolysis, supplies energy to living cells in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and can also be converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogenesis, to fatty acids or energy through acetyl-CoA, to the amino acid alanine and to ethanol...

Pyruvate kinase (EC: is an enzyme involved in glycolysis. It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, yielding one molecule of pyruvate and one molecule of ATP...

Here are some other links...

Our bodies make pyruvate naturally every day during the metabolism or digestion of sugars and starches. Pyruvate is the compound to start the Krebs cycle.

The Krebs cycle is an energy cycle in the body of enzymes and chemical actions that yield direct precursors to ATP or ATP itself.

Pyruvate is actually derived from pyruvic acid. Although pyruvic acid alone is chemically unstable and can cause gastrointestinal discomfort and nausea, when combined with a salt (such as sodium or calcium), it becomes stabilized pyruvate. As well as being a naturally formed product of digestive processes, pyruvate also exists in many different foods. Red apples, cheese, dark beer, and red wine are just a few. Dietary supplements of pyruvate are also available. Bodybuilding.com's carries the highest quality pyruvate supplements... It works by increasing amount of ATP available to the energy engines of cells, mitochondria, as well as inhibiting fat production...


Pyruvate Dehydrogenase & Krebs Cycle
Glycolysis enzymes are located in the  cytosol of cells.  Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion to be metabolized further.

(r)-, but not (s)-alpha lipoic acid stimulates deficient brain pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in vascular dementia, but not in Alzheimer dementia.

Mitochondrial compartments:

The mitochondrial matrix contains Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and enzymes of Krebs Cycle, plus other pathways such as fatty acid oxidation...

Known sources:

Natural sources:





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Updated: July 2, 2012
Inception: July 2, 2012